23 March 2013

SOLOMON IN ALL HIS GLORY



SALAMUN
 
Kważi elf mara!
Kif seta’ jlaħħaq magħhom
Sal-matutin?!
 
Ħsieb laterali:
Ta' min dik it-tarbija?
Aqsmu lil din!
 
B’riħet in-nisa
li kellu Salamun
sab l-għerf divin.
 
JOE SALIBA
26.2.2012

18 March 2013

SOME MORE POEMS

GĦAJJEJT NAĦSEB

Għajjejt naħseb, għajjejt nikteb,

għax b’kull kelma li ttajpjajt

moħħi ttaqqal, qalbi ngħasret,

ma nafx kif, bla ma ndunajt.

Ma tfajtx l-ankri ’mma bqajt naqdef

lejn dak kollu l’hu ta’ ġieħ,

safi, jseddaq, veru u lanqas

ma jinbidel ma’ kull riħ.

Fuq tapit Persjan fi ħsiebi

tirt fuq dinja ta’ ġmiel kbir...

ibħra, msaġar, bliet u rħula.

Għadni nħossu dat-tferfir!

Ridt nitkixxef, nifhem kollox,

kif jitwieled kangarù

kif min-naħal jiġi l-għasel,

kulma ġara, kulma hu.

Qallibt moħħi nifli l-kotba

biex nitgħallem x’qatt kien hemm

li jagħmilna dak li aħna...

xbihat t’Alla u nies tad-demm.

Billi l-ġrajja ta’ dinjitna,

għalkemm timxi b’pass meqjus,

tirrepeti ruħha u minnha

ma tgħallmux, jaħasra, l-ġnus,

sibt kull gwerra tħalli wrajha

iż-żerriegħa għal aktar ġlied

fil-futur, għira u mibegħda...

bħal f’tal-Għeden frott qerried.

Mela, aktarx, il-ħwejjeġ koroh

li semmejt u mhux kitbieti

li filġuni matul ħajti...

għax jien faraġ sibt f’għanjieti.

JOE SALIBA

25.2.2012

INVELL

Il-ħajja timla u tofrogħ

u qatt ma tibqa’ nvell,

daqqa titfagħna fl-għoli,

kultant fl-irmied u d-dell.

Jiġu l-anniversarji

tas-snin...niċċelebraw

l-età bil-kejk u x-xema’,

u waqt li niskantaw

l’ għaddiet sena oħra, ngergru

kemm hu bla ħniena ż-żmien

li bħal arloġġ għalina

jieqaf għax bħalna għajjien.

Tfarrakt bil-mixja twila

li mxejt u bħal vapur

ħallejt warajja tranja

ta’ hena u ta’ dulur.

’Mma bħall-ħolqien, f’ħajjitna

is-sħab iswed u tqil,

it-tlajja’ żigużajki,

l-għarar u t-temp qalil,

ukoll jieqfu u jinbidlu

u l-ajru jsir sabiħ,

it-tlajja’ jilħqu n-niżla,

u jbattu l-mewġ u r-riħ...

U tinxef l-art madwarna,

u s-sema li ftit qabel

waddbilna s-silġ u x-xita,

jonxrilna żewġ qawsalel.

JOE SALIBA

2.3.2012

17 March 2013

RECENT POEM

ĠIMGĦA L-ISPTAR

Dak ta’ quddiemi - l-Grieg - fetaħ l-arkivji
tal-mard li kellu f’ħajtu mal-iżbalji
tat-tobba (kif qal hu) li ħallewh mgħaxxex,
b’sidru ssukkat u mġebbed bħat-takkalji.

L-armla ta’ ħdejja tkellmet fuq żgħożitha
mikula sħiħ bid-drogi u l-infezzjoni
li ġabitha l-isptar tliet ġimgħat ilu...
Qaltilna wkoll x’tħobb taqra...X’konfużjoni!

In-ners hi u tindokrana ngħaqdet magħna
għax ratna interessati lkoll w attenti;
hi qalet tagħha u stqarret l-esperjenzi
li kellha ġo kull sptar qalb il-pazjenti.

U magħhom jiena wkoll nhewden imnikket...
għax għalija...
L-għanqud tal-għeneb nixef
u d-dielja bdiet titbiel;
kull ilsien ilma mtajjar
daħal f’qoxortu u miel.

Minn ras l-għoljiet sal-wita
ħġejjeġ kbar ta’ nirien
qabdu u tferrxu f’daqqa...
bħal vampa kullimkien.

It-tfal fil-bitħa twerwru
maħkuma minn ċiklun
li ġie fuqhom bħal barri
w għamel kollox deffun.

L-għorrief waqgħu bħal borra
f’livell tan-nies tat-triq,
u nbidlu f’ħaġa waħda,
ballun mogħti bis-sieq.

M’għandniex għalfejn niftiehmu
għax l’ għedna ġie fix-xejn,
tabakk maħruq ġo jdejna,
kesħa fuq ix-xofftejn.

Bejn sema w art ninsabu
fuq baħar wiesgħa u griż,
nixxennqu għal kulma tlifna
li kien maħbub w għażiż.

Jew ġewwa sqaq inkunu
nistaqsu l-għala u l-kif,
meta, sa fejn...Il-mirja
għandhom bżonn it-tindif!

L-għasfur fuq spallti nħasad
kif kanta għax waqa’ s-skiet
madwaru waqt li l-ġwienaħ
tfarfrulu u sar irmied.

Barrejna ’l dak ta’ ġewwa
u eżiljajna l-qrib,
ħraqnielu kulma kiteb.
MINN FOMMI DAT-TIKRIB.

X’jien ngħid, noħlom u nhewden,
imnikket hekk kif jien?!
Jeħtieġli nqum fuq tiegħi
u ma nibqax ħosbien.

Għalhekk...
Biex nibdel das-suġġett fid-diskursata
jien qbadt temi ta’ ferħ: letteratura,
storja, filosofija, mużka w arti,
sa ma żerżaqt kelmtejn fuq l-Iskrittura.

Issa dieħel il-lejl...biex forsi f’ħolma,
b’għajnejna għajjiena b’ġebel inviżibbli,
inqattgħu l-almanakk ta’ futur kiefer
u floku t-tama ta’ fejqan tanġibbli.

JOE SALIBA
19.1.2013
RESPIRATORY UNIT, AUSTIN HOSPITAL,
HEIDELBERG, VICTORIA

05 January 2013

MEMORABILJA a Maltese poem

 

MEMORABILJA

 
Fi tfuliti
u mal-bidu ta’ żgħożiti
kont noqgħod fi Sqaq Sabella
ġewwa Birkirkara
marsus
bejn il-mewt u l-ħajja...
Max-xellug
Wenzu
tal-karrijiet tal-mejtin.
U mal-lemin,
(mill-bitħa tagħna
fis-skiet
konna nisimgħuh
it-tħannin
tal-ispiritiera),
tliet aħwa xjuħ, sinċiera,
li kienu jqumu
jaħmu
kuljum kmieni filgħodu
l-ostji tat-tqarbin.

Ħajja u mewt...
 
Wara li ħriġt mid-djuq ta’ dak l-isqaq
għall-ftuħ ta’ toroq barra barranin iserrpu
mingħajr ma jaslu mkien,
jien
xorta bqajt
għomri kollu
nitlajja
bejn il-mewt u l-ħajja.
 
JOE SALIBA
10.12.2011

05 August 2011

A POEM FROM MY LATEST POETRY BOOK "SANTWARJU"

KAKOFONIJA

Tlabt ’l Alla jtini għomor twil. Semagħni.
Ħamsin, sittin, issa sebgħin...U l-bqija?

Aktar ma nikber, aktar l-istaġuni
jidhru li għaddejjin minn fuqi jlebbtu
bit-tibdil sfrenat tagħhom, u kull sena
nar’ha tintemm ġo qabar mingħajr fjuri
waqt li f’Diċembru x-xewk jibla’ l-mogħdija
li nkunu ħratna.

X’minni? Ngħidilkom...
Dawn il-jiem kolonna
se taqa’ u ma taqax; maħżen parċmini
mingħajr siġill;
skritturi indifferenti,
riċetti mħawra
minn tobba u speċjalisti ħa jżommuni
ftit ieħor ħaj.

U issa bil-pace-maker jgħasses bieżel
kull taħbita ta’ qalbi u jikkontrolla
tektkitha,
la bil-lajma u lanqas mgħaġġla,
u jekk xi darba tieqaf, kif qaluli,
għandu jheżżiha b’xokk illi jqajjimni
ħa nkompli t-triq bil-pass il-pass lejn tmiemi.

Ħa nkompli t-triq li qbadt, trejqa tisserrep
bejn blat u ilma. F’naħa safef t’iġbla
jisfidawni, għoljin, u n-naħa l-oħra
taħti baħar għammieq mifrux sax-xefaq.
Imbagħad jidħol iċ-ċpar jitkebbeb f’kollox.

Xi ħaġa stramba din:
għannej b’qalb mingħajr ritmu,
poeta li għalkemm żamm l-armonija
ta’ dawn il-vrus, qalbu kakofonija.


J.S.

07 July 2011

SANTWARJU new Maltese poetry book by JOE SALIBA



SANTWARJU
KTIEB ĠDID TA’ POEŻIJI
TA’
JOE SALIBA
2011

Daqs A5; 72 paġna.
Il-ktieb jinkludi: bijografija, 62 poeżija, ġabra ta’ 45 ħajku, traduzzjoni tal-poeżija ta’ Loiuis MacNeice “Prayer Before Birth” u għadd ta’ kummenti dwar l-awtur u xogħlijietu minn awturi oħra, ħbiebu, reċensuri u kritiċi letterarji antiki u moderni mill-1965 lil hawn. Jagħtu l-fehmiet tagħhom insibu lil Karmenu Vassallo, Dun Frans Camilleri, Karmen Mikallef-Buħaġar, il-Professur Oliver Friggieri, Ġużè Chetcuti, il-Professur Manwel Mifsud, Doreen Micallef, Mario Azzopardi, Achille Mizzi, Albert Marshall, Ġorġ Borġ, Carmel G. Cauchi, Norbert Ellul-Vincenti, Monsinjur L. Cachia, Patrick Sammut, Rigu Bovingdon, Sergio Grech, Dr Adrian Grima, Francis Galea, Manwel Cassar, Manuel Casha, Joe Axiaq, u oħrajn.

Numru ta’ poeżiji ta’ dan il-ktieb jirrifflettu l-ħajja preżenti tal-poeta, bniedem li għalaq 70 sena, b’futur imwiegħer ħtija ta’ mard serju tal-qalb li għalih mhemmx soluzzjoni. Mhuwiex ktieb ta’ niket għax l-awtur jagħraf jagħżel iż-żergħa mill-ħuxlief, jispira ruħu mill-hena tal-ispirazzjoni għall-kitba u l-ġmiel tal-ħolqien ta’ wadwaru, jirrassenja ruħu għall-qagħda li qiegħed fiha u dejjem jipprova jsib xi xaqq ta’ tama għal xi ftit mumenti ta’ faraġ u mistrieħ.

Xi ħaġa stramba din:
għannej b’qalb mingħajr ritmu,
poeta li għalkemm żamm l-armonija
ta’ dawn il-vrus, qalbu kakofonija.
(KAKOFONIJA)

Bħalma għamel dejjem, f’SANTWARJU wkoll il-versi ta’ Saliba huma liriċi u personali bla biża’ li jikteb kif jixtieq u kif iħoss fuq is-sabiħ li jara u l-ikrah li jdejqu.

Il-ktieb SANTWARJU jinsab għall-bejgħ minghand l-awtur.
Ikteb lilu fuq dan l-indirizz elettroniku:
jpasal@optusnet.com.au
Il-ħlas għandu jsir b’forma ta’ Bank Cheque f’isem JOE SALIBA. Dal-ħlas jinkludi l-pustaġġ bl-ajru.
Fl-Awstralja: $10 (Dollari Awstraljani)
Malta: €17 (Euros)
Minn pajjiżi oħra somma ekwivalenti għall-prezzijiet imsemmija.

21 April 2011

POEM: MEDITATION EASTER MORNING



MEDITATION EASTER MORNING

What is this morning's meaning,
this unfamiliar light,
early voices swirling like mist,
blood upon the winding sheet?

In this dawning silence, outside,
the living whirl in a ring of fire,
sporting masks of a thousand faces,
choosing each other's madness.

Here, crime is not one person's failure
but a nation's illness,
fulfilling lust with social levity,
where malice is mutual and different faiths
heat up the flames.

Now only the streets
carry exotic names of poets and flora.
All else is misery.

To love is to kill,
to laugh is to cry,
to kiss is to die...

The mind, in vain,
attempts to see a world
where wars have ceased,
where tears have dried,
and sorrow, pain and death
no longer breathe.

Then fetch me a guide,
a speck from the smallest star.
No, Tiresias, we'll be
as the blind leading the blind,
falling, perhaps, into the abyssmal truth
of knowing all.

So tear me away from my heart's havoc.
Let me rise this morning
with the risen One,
as he flourishes his seed
into trees of righteousness.
Let me be one of those plants,
whilst I meditate on how his light
has routed darkness.
JOE SALIBA

15 April 2011

COME, LORD JESUS.

EJJA, MULEJ ĠESÙ.

Dalwaqt niftakru fil-Passjoni u l-Irxoxt ta' Sidna Ġesù
Kristu. Tajjeb li nqawwu qlubna u naħsbu ftit fit-tieni
miġja tiegħu meta tibda s-saltna tiegħu fuq id-dinja
u Hu jkun, kif kien imħabbar fil-Bibbja,
is-Sultan tas-slaten.


CHRISTUS REX

Kemm jgħaddu ċentinarji,
u l-festa tiġi u tmur!
Kif jgħibu l-istaġuni
maħruba bħal mutur!

Jittieklu l-monumenti,
imutu n-nies bl-eluf,
u waqt li nħaffru l-oqbra
jittawlu t-tfal mill-ġuf.

Kuntrasti u paraguni,
tixwix, gwerer u ġlied,
saltniet jitkissru u frakhom
jitħalla lill-werriet.

Fruntieri jaqgħu f'lejla,
bliet kbar jisfaw deffun,
min jibki kollu dmija,
u min f'daru midfun.

Sa l-anġli jidhru mbeżżgħa!
X'saħta fuq il-bnedmin
li f'roqgħa ħàma jinten
jitqallbu fuq xulxin!

L-uħux ta' Sodom qamu
mill-melħ u mill-irmied,
stenbħu sabiex ilaqqmu
bil-mard subien u bniet.

Tħarsux lura lejn darkom
għax nieżla mis-smewwiet
xita ta' nar u ħġejjeġ.
Aħarbu mill-ibliet!

L-iskrejjen qed iduru,
ix-xfafar misnunin.
Dalwaqt għall-ħaqq jiltaqgħu
l-imqajma mal-ħajjin.

Dalwaqt jinfetħu l-kotba,
dalwaqt il-firda ssir,
dalwaqt flimkien ninġabru
miġbuda biż-żarżir.

Trumbetta wara l-oħra
tgħajjat fl-erbat irjieħ;
il-ġnus waqfu jissemmgħu.
Min hu li qed isieħ?

Dalwaqt b'rogħda tinqasam
il-Għolja taż-żebbuġ,
meta mill-Belt Qadima
jispiċċa d-dħul u l-ħruġ.

Għax Hu l-ewwel li jidħol
mill-bieb imħejji għalih
f'Ġerusalem il-Ġdida
fejn kollox hemm sabiħ.

Araw dik in-nixxiegħa
ħierġa minn taħt l-altar,
mal-ġnub siġar li jfejqu
kull mard, uġigħ u mrar.

Ejjew immissu l-weraq,
nixorbu l-ilma ċar;
hemmhekk l-istess inkunu,
hemmhekk m'hemmx għonja u fqar.

Hemm biss saltna ta’ mħabba
li tilħaq kullimkien,
kull rokna, ġens u bniedem.
Dinjitna saret ġnien!

JOE SALIBA
14.5.1992

05 February 2011

JOE SALIBA reads 4 of his Maltese poems - see 2 videos

JOE SALIBA reads 4 of his Maltese poems, 2 on each video...
GĦABRA and IL-BEJTA see first video
PRONJOSI and IL-LEWN T'GĦAJNEJK see second video...
video video

04 February 2011

AN ESSAY ON WILLIAM BLAKE



WILLIAM BLAKE

THE INTELLECTUAL LIBERATION OF
THE HUMAN SPIRIT AT THE END OF
THE EIGHTEENTH CENTURY

SONGS OF INNOCENCE
AND
SONGS OF EXPERIENCE

JOE SALIBA


In Songs of Innocence and Songs of Experience (1798) William Blake (1757-1827) investigates human nature. In the “Innocence” group of lyrics he concentrates, with a pure and primitive diction and an almost naive eloquence, on the world of the child - idyllic, pure, bright and gentle. For Blake this type of world is “Heaven” or “Poetic Genius” where imagination, unshackled by institutionalisation, is the basis for such an existence. In sharp contrast to the pastoral simplicity of “Innocence”, Blake takes the heavenly mood of the child’s world and turns it into a fierce and terrifying “Hell” in the “Experience” songs. According to the poet, the state of “Hell” and “Evil” is the result of the child’s loss of the power of imagination, dreams and vision, brought about by the child’s growing up in a world where rationalism deprives him of what is natural. Because of this “fallen state”, the child condemns himself to an adult life of cruelty, jealousy, indignation and death. The free human spirit is thus enslaved. Throughout most of his writings Blake attempts to show that “Innocence” and “Experience”, “Heaven” and “Hell”, “Good” and “Evil”, are necessary for spiritual growth, that is, that there is no progression without opposites.
The world of “Innocence” is portrayed through the eyes of children. The child is unaware of anything outside the free climate of his own ecstasy. He does not reflect on his state of being. He does not find happiness and harmony but rather he is happiness itself and he lives in harmony with nature. For Blake, therefore, the child is a Lamb, God and nature are maternal nurses tending to his needs, Providence has appointed guardian angels to watch over the child and the child is part of the “Golden Age”. Even adults can be part of the mystical world of the child by seeking the visionary way through imagination. To achieve this goal, adults must cast aside all deceits and follies contrary to the divine law. For Blake, divine law is the natural requirement to remain a child in spirit. Otherwise man, the “lapsed soul”1 is lost in the prison of earthly values dictated by false moralisers.
The language used to express the ideas of “Innocence” are devoid of any sinister connotations. The verses have simple rhythms. They are musical and tender. The metres are borrowed from nursery rhymes, ballads and singing games. The unpretentious themes of childhood are recorded in simple, crystal-clear lyrics and enhanced by pastoral Christian images. Blake’s decorations are painted in light colours and filled with flowers and leafy vines, dancing children, lambs and tiny angels. In the decorations of “Experience”, although the language remains simple and direct, they are often bleak, dark, filled with dead leaves, wilting flowers, dead or dying figures, graves and tombstones.2
The ‘Introduction’3 to the Songs of Innocence demonstrates Blake’s intent to write songs that “Every child may joy to hear.” His very inspiration has come from a child situated upon a cloud who has at first requested, “Pipe a song about a Lamb”, then repeated:
“Piper, sit thee down and write
In a book that all may read.”
The child weeps with joy at hearing the songs, as the poet, at the child’s request, devotes himself to writing such a collection of lyrics.
The spirit of “Innocence” can be seen in ‘The Lamb’.4 This poem deals with the figure of Jesus and Blake’s belief at this time that abiding by divine law is essential to stay a child in spirit. All questions in the poem are intended to lead us to the existence of a loving God who looks after his lambs, his children. The child and lamb in all of us, Blake suggests, will continue to find love and protection in God as long as we keep this innocent relationship with the one who made both lamb and child. The Shepherd-Lamb and Father-Child loving relationship results in a divine blessing.
Blake feels that the child’s “Innocence” is shown in his lack of knowledge of racial differences. Blake’s humanitarian views and support for racial equality and the abolition of the slave trade are well expressed in ‘The Little Black Boy’.5 During the 1780s the injustices of negro slavery received much public debate. The establishment in 1787 of “The Society for the Suppression of the Slave Trade” was followed by long and acrimonious debates in Parliament.6 In this lyric Blake shows that in the light of God’s love the souls of black or white are not different and that man must also bear an equal love similar to God’s. Together, black and white, “we may learn to bear the beams of love.” Blake addresses the problem to man himself in the words of the Black Boy’s mother:
“For when our souls have learn’d the heat to bear,
The cloud will vanish; we shall hear his voice,
Saying: ‘Come out from the grove, my love and care,
And round my golden tent like lambs rejoice.’”
The ultimate goal of blacks and whites should be the freedom from this hovering “cloud”, a symbol of the confusion of racial prejudice, slavery and inequality. Blake is saying that each race has its functional weaknesses and strengths - especially the whites, who cannot bear the intense heat of the tropical sun. But with the help of the Black Boy, the White Boy shall be able to grow accustomed to his surroundings and the two shall stand together in the love of God, each alike, and loving each other.
In ‘The Chimney Sweeper’7 Blake calls attention to one of the blind-spots of the “enlightened” English society. Chimneys had to be swept and often their flues were like narrow tombs. Children as young as four were hired to contractors who used them to brush soot from caked flues and carry it away in bags. In 1788 Parliament passed a law to prohibit the use of children under the age of eight as chimney-sweepers, to allow them to wash once a week and to prevent their being sent up into burning chimneys where they might be, and too often were, burned to death.8 Blake looks hopefully to better days for the innocent young chimney-sweepers:
“And by came an angel who had a bright key,
And he open’d the coffins and set them all free;
Then down a green plain leaping, laughing, they run,
And wash in a river, and shine in the Sun.”
Besides the concept of equality in ‘The Little Black Boy’, of protective love that we find in ‘The Lamb’, and of the wickedness and cruelty of child labour in ‘The Chimney Sweeper’, there are other characteristics that Blake associates with “Innocence”. The poem ‘The Divine Image’9 captures Blake’s humanistic idealism that man is endowed with an inherent divinity if only he will share the poet’s vision. The child, for Blake, has this kind of vision, and by the manifestation of mercy, pity, peace and love, becomes divine. God dwells in that child. ‘Holy Thursday’10 with the pictures of children gathered for prayer at Saint Paul’s Cathedral speaks of the divine image in children. ‘Nurse’s Song’11 recreates the state of protection and providence. While children play, the hills echo their affirmation of serene order and perfection.
The mystical and spontaneous joy transmitted in Songs of Innocence becomes a searing damnation in Songs of Experience. The child’s laughter has been silenced and his body has been exploited by excessive labour, resulting in fear, misery and degradation. Emphasis in the poems is now on the adults who have caused such a disgrace through their own loss of “Innocence” by alienating themselves from divine laws which do not equate with institutionalised religion. Blake, therefore, condemns church and state institutions, hypocrisy, doctrines and regulations for suppressing the natural and free human spirit of the child. To Blake the world of “Experience” carries with it disillusionment, the cruelty of man, the harshness of nature and the wickedness of human institutions. To emphasise the differences between the two contrary states, Blake composed at least one Song of Experience for each Song of Innocence. Some of the latter poems are parodies of the earlier ones. In many cases the corresponding verses bear identical or obviously contrasting titles.12
The “Experience” lyrics too grew out of Blake’s sense-experience, far removed from eighteenth-century objectivity and rationalism. The child of innocence becomes the victim of experience, his laughter silenced, his body fouled and exploited, his joys crushed, and the freedom turns to slavery to a society hostile to childhood itself. The visionary lyrics reverberate the intensity of the poet’s outrage whilst the symbols scorch and condemn the social, religious and political bigotry and injustices which Blake regarded as a national disgrace.
The dark or “lapsed” side of human nature can be seen in ‘The Tiger’,13 the antithesis of ‘The Lamb’. The origin of the wrath and fearsomeness of the beast are implicit in the unanswered questions, perhaps in an attempt to reconcile opposites:
“Did he smile his work to see?
Did he who made the Lamb make thee?”
Did God create, as well as the Lamb of “Innocence”, the Tiger of “Experience”? If so, why? Perhaps to frighten man back into his condition of “Innocence” from which he has strayed. Is the Tiger then a symbol of God’s wrath? The poet questions and leaves the answers to the reader. The questions are not directed to the creator of such awesome force, as if the poet does not have the audacity to argue with God’s intelligence. Instead, Blake speaks to the Tiger and looks upon the beast as the symbol of human energy, fierceness and wrath.
Man has the power to be a Lamb but chooses to be a fiery Tiger “in the forests of the night.” There is yet something powerfully attractive about this Tiger. The “burning bright’ ferocity and strength of the animal-in-man are several times associated with brightness, fire and burning. As the Bible indicates, man is also “fearfully and wonderfully made” (Psalm 139:14), in comparison to the “fearful symmetry” of the Tiger. Blake seems to suggest that even the stars are filled with a sense of surrender and pity at the awesomeness of the tiger-in-man, for they “threw their spears” and “water’d heaven with their tears.”
On another level, if the Lamb represents God’s love, the Tiger represents his righteous anger. Eternity, the ultimate state, to Blake, is a state of balance between contraries, between gentleness and ferocity, love and wrath. Fire is a symbol of creative energy; forests are associated with darkness and fear and the haunts of error. The blacksmith is the creative spirit at work, forming and moulding man towards his ultimate goal, back to a state of “Innocence”.
The evil in man’s heart, generated through “Experience” and the loss of “Innocence”, is manifest in the cities and institutions he builds. The all-pervasive evil in ‘London’,14 although touching on the cowardice of the church and the guilt of monarchy, crystallises into a common element in “every cry of every man.” ‘London’ may well be the antithesis of ‘Laughing Song’. Its sombre mood contrasts with the gaiety of the former. In this powerful lyric Blake gives an account of the miseries of the working people of the city of London in 1793-4. At that time youths were conscripted into the army. Girls were often forced into prostitution or sold into unwelcome marriages for any price. Blake points not only to social injustice and oppression, which is the real theme of the poem, but also to “manacles” forged by each man’s mind. The “manacles” shackle everything that is able to be free. The miseries of London are perceived as the result of the unregenerate human spirit everywhere. In this representative metropolis there is no standard of justice to appeal to. The poem is an indictment of human society in general.
In ‘London’ it is impossible to define where the evil begins and ends. It seems that the disease is transmitted from one person or institution to another. This is suggested by the “blighting” and “blasting” of the last stanza with its reference to plague and death. Like eternal reminders of man’s degradation, Blake gives us frozen images of life: the soldier’s sigh running in blood down palace walls and the “blasted” infant’s tear as if congealed in the eye for all ages to see. The “charter’d streets” is a symbol of materialism through profit, of restriction and repression. The image of the “black’ning church” suggests that the church itself is the victim of industrial progress and that it is blackening morally through its compromise with society. Weakness, woe, fear “blight” every face and sound through street, church and palace. The plight of the child chimney-sweeper, the grown soldier, the young harlot, outrages the ideals of Christianity, of good government, and of human personal relationships.
The final “marriage hearse” sums up the idea of death-in-life of the picture. Yet behind it all is not only hatred of the callousness of the human heart and the need for compassion for suffering, but a passionate sense of the positive values that these evil things dishonour: freedom, strength, joy and love. Blake’s philosophy was that life cannot be rich unless man learns compassion, love and forgiveness rather than the damnation of his fellows. To him love had to be spiritual, intellectual, emotional and practical. In short. it was the human expression of the law of Christ. Blake criticised organised charity which boasted of helping the poor while keeping them deprived of the necessities of life and human dignity.
In the “Experience” version of ‘Holy Thursday’15 Blake presents the ugly conditions behind the annual ceremony at St. Paul’s. He knew what the charity schools were like. Two were situated close to his home at Lambeth. The children were often half-starved, flogged unmercifully, and trained only to be servants or labourers. Older boys and girls were farmed out to work long hours for small wages.16 Blake is appalled by the poverty, misery, trembling, and crying of these unfortunate young people whilst the ecclesiastical institutions boast of their “holy” festivities, and the employers get richer at the expense of child labour in what is supposed to be “a rich and fruitful land”.
The poem ‘The School Boy’17 starts out as the complaint of a youngster forced to stay in the classroom when he would rather be at play. Blake goes on to condemn the education of his day which not only crammed the young mind with error, but suppressed natural energy and genius. In Blake’s decoration, a boy sits in the branches of a tree, happily reading a book. To the poet this is true education; every growing creature should be left free to develop its own potential.18 Further, in ‘The Voice of the Ancient Bard’,19 the bard, like the one of the ‘Introduction’, calls upon humanity, especially upon youth, to embrace the new dawn of “Innocence” and to avoid the error of “Experience’, the “tangled roots” and “bones of the dead” over which rational philosophers and materialist priests “stumble all night”.
In the two groups of lyrics under discussion Blake attempts to plumb the depths of the greatest mystery - man. He sees the possibility of the marriage of “good” and “evil” in human life, “For everything that lives is Holy.” Man divided against himself must be unified through imagination or unimpaired vision for the perception of the Infinite. In this attempt to demonstrate this required balance, many poems of “Experience” have their counterpart in the earlier group. Similar images, symbols and figures are used in both. For instance, the idealistic little chimney-sweeper of “Innocence” is a cynical urchin in “Experience”. The kindly beadle who ushers the orphans on ‘Holy Thursday’ has become the cold, hypocritical priest, and the joyous song of the children’s prayers has become a song of misery which charity cannot change. In all these pictures we can see the dreamlike unreality of childhood and the horrible reality of adulthood. When God and man were one in “Innocence”, they are lost to each other in “Experience”.
The idea of intellectual liberation is relevant to the general spirit of the poems I have chosen for discussion. In these poems Blake is not doctrinaire. With simplicity, emotion and subjectivity he absorbs and records physical sensation but does not determine. He lets the reader interpret for himself. These lyrics are characterised by ecstasy rather than typical excellence. Being the precursor of Romanticism in literature, he consciously rebelled against the dictates of the late eighteenth century rationalism with its formal grace of diction, objective lucidity and dignified beauty. He saw the importance of being individualistic. His emotionalism is seen in his fight for human justice, his fervent opposition to industrial slavery as he tries to show the “Hell” that exists for those who were overworked in factories, the exploitation of children, and orphans sold to factory owners and chained to their machines like slaves. Blake aimed at the liberation of the human spirit from its own “manacles” and prejudices. He protested by endeavouring to make people aware of the suffering caused by adults. What he desired was for man to find his adulthood in the “Innocence” of his own childhood.

* * * * *

NOTES
1. BRONOWSKI J. (Editor), William Blake, Penguin Books, London, 1978, p. 41.
2.MALCOLMSON ANNE. (Editor), William Blake – An Introduction, Constance Young Books, Melbourne, 1967, p. 54.
3. BRONOWSKI J., op. cit. p.26.
4. Ibid., p. 28.
5. Ibid., p. 28.
6. MALCOLMSON ANNE, op. cit. p. 44.
7. BRONOWSKI J., op. cit. p. 30.
8. MALCOLMSON ANNE, op. cit. p. 46.
9. BRONOWSKI J., op. cit. p. 33.
10. Ibid., p. 34.
11. Ibid., p. 37.
12. MALCOLMSON ANNE, op. cit. p. 55.
13. BRONOWSKI J., op. cit. p. 49.
14. Ibid., p. 52.
15. Ibid., p. 43.
16. MALCOLMSON ANNE, op. cit. p. 62.
17. BRONOWSKI J., op. cit. p.57.
18. MALCOLMSON ANNE, op. cit. p. 68.
19. BRONOWSKI J., op. cit. p. 58.






02 February 2011

ŻEWĠ POEŻIJI OĦRA

ŻEWĠ POEŻIJI OĦRA

DLAM ĊAPPA

Meta kont tfal, niftakar, ibeżżgħuni

li kienu ġejja tlett ijiem dlam ċappa

madwar id-dinja kollha illi fihom

ix-xemx tinħeba u ma tidhirx. Werwruni!

U l-oħra: li x-xitan seta’ jaqbadni

u jġorrni f’tebqa t’għajn minn post għal ieħor.

Dal-biża’ kien kaġun ta’ xnigħat fiergħa

l’għallmuni l-katakisti u s-saċerdoti.

’Mma t-tlett ijiem ma ġewx u fejn kont bqajt...

sakemm ferħan minn dal-gideb inqtajt.

L-GĦARUS TIEGĦI

Kieku kont ngħix fi żmien l-Inkwiżizzjoni

kont nisfa vittma tat-twemmin li nħaddan.

Twemmini, bħal maltemp ġo moħħ ħaddieħor,

’mma f’qalbi qabda ġawhar illi l-ħnieżer

jibqgħu jirrifjutaw u jirfsu fuqhom.

Lix-Xemx jagħtuha daharhom u ħlief dellhom

quddiemhom ma jarawx...flok dawl l-imsiebaħ

b’messaġġ il-Verità li t-triq tmexxihom

għal żwieġi mal-Għarus li qed nistenna...

Hemmhekk l-Inkwiżitur jiftaħ l-Inkjesta...

video video

07 February 2010

MANUEL CASHA poems ABORIGINALS




MANUEL CASHA
BI TLIET POEZIJI
FUQ L-ABORIGNI AWSTRALJANI

Ghadd ta’ poeti Maltin-Awstraljani kitbu fuq ir-razza tal-aborigni tal-Awstralja u dak kollha li ghandu x’jaqsam maghha. Ma jistax jonqos li dak li naraw madwarna jaffettwana bhala kittieba li ghalkemm ma nafux wisq fuq l-indigni ghax m’ghandhomx lingwa miktuba, b’dankollu xorta wahda nesprimu ruhna fuq din l-esperjenza unika.

Fost dawk li ghandhom xi vrus fuq dit-tema, li tinkludi l-kultura wiesgha ta’ hutna l-aborigni, vittmi tal-kolonjalizmu Brittaniku, insibu lil Manwel Nicholas-Borg, Rigu Bovington, Frank Zammit, Gorg Chetcuti, Manwel Cassar, Manuel Casha u Joe Saliba.

L-istampa ta’ fuq hija tpingija ta’ Wandjina, l-ispirti tad-dezert Awstraljan, b’ucuh minghajr halq. Barra t-tifsira originali li jaghtu l-aborigni lil dir-rapprezentazzjoni tal-ispirti li jdawruhom fid-dezert, dan is-simbolu jiena narah ukoll mera tal-qaghda antropologika ta’ dal-poplu, jigifieri dik li l-indigni zammew halqhom maghluq ghax ma thallewx jesprimu t-tbatijiet u n-niket ta’ razzthom minsija u mkasbra mid-dittaturi kolonjali.

Li gejjin huma tliet poeziji ta’ Manuel Casha li jgibulna moghdrija ghall-"istupru" vili, kif jghidilna Casha, ta’ dal-poplu primittiv imdawwar b’socjeta’ moderna li issa, wara mitejn sena, bdiet bil-mod il-mod tapprezzah u tithassru (“SORRY”), ghalkemm mill-boghod. u mhux dejjem b’idejha miftuhin.

DIDGERIDOO

Nofroq il-folla go Victoria Market,
infittex l-arti 'ndigina ta’ dawk li gew qabilna,
qabel ma partu "hin-il-holm"
mal-inbid hamrani li jnissihom
min kienu…
min huma…
min saru…
B'gilda sewda, w'ghajnejn zoroq,
in-nattiv jitmieghek f'sakra tal-mewt
mixhut fuq il-bankina
mghajjar, mistmerr u mifni,
imwarrab…
imgarrab…
imkarrab…
waqt li Ciniz bil-beritta Amerikana,
jbiegh Didgeridoo lill-folla ghaddejja.
b'Ingliz imkisser joffri prezz specjali,
minghajr rimors u misthija
jiggebbed…
jitkedded…
u jhedded…
"prezz bhal dan ma ssibu mkien".
U x'hin jonfoh fl-arblu mqaddes,
is-simb’lu tar-razza mifnija…
l-istupru jkun shih…


F’CURLEWIS GARDENS - PERTH

Ix-xemx tixghel il-kuluri
tal-fjuri tal-palmi
fil-genna tal-art
fejn nimxi
f’Curlewis Gardens…
F’naha, it-tfal jilaghbu.
Fl-ohra, l-karozzi jleqqu
fir-raggi tax-xemx,
bhalma jleqq wicc l-indigenu
mixhut qalb il-fjuri
f’sakra ghamja,
u l-hgieg tat-tieqa
tal-lukanda fejn qeghdin,
fejn nghixu fil-lussu,
mibnija fuq art sagra
li darba kienet daru…


MIT-TIEQA TAL-ESPLANADE HOTEL – PERTH V.1

Inhares mit-tieqa mqabbza ’l barra
minn bejn il-weraq tas-sigar
li jilhqu l-hames sular
u jharsu lejn ix-xmara…
fejn l-arja artificjali
tiffriska l-iljieli shan sajfija…
fejn id-dwal ikkuluriti jixeghlu
l-gisem ileqq tal-indigenu…
bhal sepulkru fejn jimtedd,
fil-forma u fl-ispirtu
qalb il-fjuri tal-gnejna…
f’sakra ghamja
go Curlewis Gardens…

Manuel Casha

02 February 2010

ELEGIJA

Miet Frank...Miet Gorg...
Kroat u Grieg...Girienna...
U maghhom, boghod minn arthom, il-Maltin.
Xi xbihat taghhom jaqbzu mill-gazzetta
u f’ruhna mnikkta jibqghu minquxin.

In-nies tal-gâr li dfinna jumejn ilu
ghad jigu jfarrgu lilna
bl-istess kliem
li bih sabbarna lilhom,
sakemm nidhlu
ilkoll
id f’id
fic-cirku minghajr tmiem.

Fid-dlam ta’ qlubna,
mal-gulbiena bajda,
b’gelbin id-dmugh ifaqqas il-faqqiegh
bis-semm vjola tas-safar u tal-firda
inixxi
fit-tajjar
dbabar ta’ wgigh.

U llupjati kif sirna
bl-idea tac-cittadinanza doppja,
il-mewt u d-difna f’dal-pajjiz
b’daqshekk distanza,
nisthajjilhom
mostru grottesk
ta’ zewgt irjus
taht giljottina.

Imm’issa ghalija
wara das-snin mifrud mill-art Maltija,
go dal-pajjiz
se jisfa ahjar u aktar ghaziz
minn gozz hamrija hemmhekk
l-irmied li nhalli hawn
f’wiehed mill-krematorji ndaf xummiema
ta’ Fawkner Memorial Park.

Frar 2008
JOE SALIBA

19 January 2010

EZERCIZZJU JUNGJAN

Qabel ma nzilt f’guf ommi biex ninhema
nahseb li kont ghasfur ghax sikwit nohlom
li qed intir. Skont Jung dan jipprezenta
il-kollettiv fil-hsieb ta’ dawk li jsostnu
li ghandhom f’mohhhom xi missjoni ghad-dinja,
u jhobbu l-fama u l’ huma superjuri
fuq dawk li ma jtirux. Carl Jung hekk emmen.
Jekk hu kien hekk, jiena m’iniex, tafuni.
U jekk xi darba kont ghasfur, emmnuni,
aktarx kont bilbla u mhux ghasfur tal-priza.

11 JANNAR 2010

14 January 2010

AFTER DEATH, WHAT?




NO IMMEDIATE EXISTENCE
BEYOND DEATH

The intention of this article is to encourage people to study the Bible for themselves and acknowledge God's book as the source of all truth.

The Bible, God’s word, is infallible, “For whatsoever things were written aforetime were written for our learning, that we through patience and comfort of the scriptures might have hope" (Romans 15:4). "All scripture is given by inspiration of God, and is profitable for doctrine, for reproof, for correction, for instruction in righteousness" (1 Timothy 3:16). By definition God cannot and would not deceive us. Thus God has given us enough information in his writing that would leave us in no doubt that there is no immediate form of existence beyond death. This goes against the grain to most Christians.

The alleged so-called sciences that we hear about are pseudo-sciences, a figment of people's imagination. Unfortunately the greatest delusion in human thinking is the false idea that we possess an immortal soul that continues to have some kind of existence after death. Some of these false sciences are: out of body and near death experiences, any communication or mediumship with the dead, spiritism, poltergeists etc.

The belief in an immediate after-life has given rise to the idea of spirits, souls and ghosts. The pseudo-sciences are simply the end-result of man’s desire for a comfort zone for the dead. In other words, man’s ways and means of trying to hold on to the perception that our beloved departed ones or their souls have continued to live somewhere and somehow in a different dimension to our own existence.

Let us not be deceived by such grandiose untruths and misconceptions. As the Bible clearly indicates, the dead are dead, "For that which befalls the sons of men befalls beast; even one thing befalls them: as the one dies, so dies the other; yea they all have one breath; so that a man has no preeminence above a beast" (Ecclesiates 3:19-20). "For to him that is joined to all the living there is hope; for a living dog is better than a dead lion. For the living know that they shall die; but the dead know not anything, neither have they any more a reward; for the memory of them is forgotten. Also their love, and their hatred, and their envy, is now perished; neither have they any portion for ever in anything which is done under the sun" (Ecclesiastes 9:4-6). My emphasis THE DEAD KNOW NOT ANYTHING! We cannot find simpler words than these about the state of the dead which is described in no uncertain words as follows, "There the wicked cease from troubling; and there the weary be at rest. There the prisoners rest together: they hear not the voice of the oppressor" (Job 3:17-18). Also, "For the grave cannot praise you [God], death cannot celebrate you; they that go down into the pit cannot hope for your truth. The living, the living, he shall praise you as I do this day" (Isaiah 38:18-19). When we are dead, we are absolutely, undeniably, assuredly and irrefutably dead. It must be mentioned here that whosoever distorts, takes out of context, adds to God's word their ideas will be condemned and punished. A sobering thought indeed, "For I testify unto every man that hears the words of the prophecy of this book: If any man shall add unto these things, God shall add unto him the plagues that are written in this book" (Revelation 22:18). Although this condemnation refers to Revelation specifically, it certainly would apply to all Scripture.

God teaches us in his book that there is no irnmediate life after death The good and faithful people of the Bible never received their reward for, "These all, having obtained a good report through faith, received not the promise; God having provided some better thing for us, that they without us should not be made perfect" (Hebrews 11:40).

Certainiy there will be life after the resurrection when Jesus will return to judge the living and the dead, "And many of them that sleep in the dust of the earth shall awake, some to everlasting life, and some to shame and everlasting contempt" (Daniel 12:2). And what will be the reward or punishment ? Simply put, eternal life or everlasting death, as we read, “For the wages of sin is death, but the gift of God is eternal life through Jesus Christ our Lord” (Romans6:23).

The apostle Paul was ecstatic when trying to describe this future event when the righteous will receive their reward, “Eye has not seen, nor ear heard, neither have entered into the heart of man, the things which God had prepared for them that love him” (1 Corinthians 2:9).

May our departed loved ones rest in peace until the Lord returns as we continue to remember them with deep affection.

06 January 2010

THY KINGDOM COME



QATT KONT TAF?

LI S-SALTNA T’ALLA LI TITKELLEM FUQHA L-BIBBJA SE TKUN
FUQ DIN L-ART.
DAN HU L-PJAN DIVIN GHAD-DINJA LI QEGHDIN NGHIXU FIHA.

IL-PJAN T’ALLA GHAD-DINJA
M’ghandniex inhabblu mohhna u ninkwetaw meta nisimghu li d-dinja ghad tinqered u tispicca fix-xejn ghaliex din hi gidba tax-xjentisti u m'hijiex il-verità li nsibu fil-Bbbja.
Fl-Iskrittura nsibu li Alla ghandu futur sabih ghar-razza umana u d-dinja li nghixu fiha. Hu rrevela l-pjanijiet tieghu ghad-dinja fil-Bibbja Mqaddsa.
Alla halaq id-dinja biex tkun mghammra u mhux biex tkun meqruda:
“Sawwar l-art u ghamilha; wettaqha, mhux biex tibqa’ bahh, izda sawwarha biex tkun imghammra” (Isaija 45:18).
“Ghax l-art timtela’ bil-gharfa tal-glorja tal-Mulej, bhalma l-ilmijiet jiksu l-bahar”
(Habaqquq 2:14).
“Nisel jghaddi, u nisel iehor jigi; izda l-art tibqa’ ghal dejjem” (Ekklezjasti 1:4).

GESÙ GHANDU JIGI LURA FID-DINJA BIEX JAGHMEL IL-HAQQ
Gesù gej lura biex iwaqqaf is-saltna ta’ Missieru fid-dinja. Bhalma t-Testment il-Qadim habbar l-ewwel migja ta’ Gesù u indika wkoll it-tieni migja tieghu, it-Testment il-Gdid habbar b’aktar dettalji t-tieni migja tieghu:
“Ja rgiel mill-Galilija, ghax qeghdin tharsu fiss lejn is-sema? Dan l-istess Gesù, li rtafa’ fis-sema minn maghkom, hekk ghad jerga’ jigi bhalma rajtuh sejjer fis-sema” (Atti 1:11).
“Meta Bin il-bniedem jigi fil-glorja tieghu, u l-angli mqaddsa kollha mieghu, imbaghad joqghod fuq it-tron tal-glorja tieghu; u jingabru quddiemu l-gnus kollha, u jifridhom minn xulxin, bhalma r-raghaj jifred in-nghag mill-gidjien” (Mattew 25:31-32).
It-tnax-il Appostlu jkollhom hidma partikulari fis-saltna t’Alla kif kien weghedhom Gesù stess:
“Intom li gejtu warajja, fit-tigdid tad-dinja, meta Bin il-bniedem joqghod fuq it-tron tal-glorja tieghu, intom ukoll toqoghdu fuq tnax-il tron, u taghmlu haqq mit-tnax-il tribù ta’ Izrael”
(Mattew 19:28).

IL-GUDIZZJU TAD-DINJA
Qabel ma nkomplu, niftakru illi l-migja lura ta’ Gesù Kristu se ggib maghha kemm hwejjeg tal-biza’ kif ukoll hafna barka. Sakemm Gesù jkollu f’idejh il-popli kollha se jkun hemm xi rezistenza. Ninnutaw erba’ aspetti:
1 “Il-popli kollha” se jingabru kontra Izrael biex jinvaduh, izda Gesù se jgibhom fix-xejn u jeqridhom (Zakkarija 14; Ezekjel 38, 39).
2 Fl-art imqaddsa u l-aktar madwar Gerusalem se jkun hemm terremot kbir li jgib mieghu hsarat tremendi, meta “f’dak il-jum jieqfu riglejh [Gesù] fuq il-gholja taz-zebbug, li qieghda quddiem Gerusalem, lejn il-lvant, u tinferaq l-gholja taz-zebbug minn nofsha...hekk li jkun hemm wied kbir” (Zakkarija 14:4).
3 Xi nazzjonijiet se johduha kontra Kristu, “Is-slaten tal-art iqumu, u l-kbarat jiftiehmu bejniethom kontra l-Mulej, u kontra l-midluk tieghu” (Salmi 2:2), imma l-gudizzji t’Alla se jaqghu fuq dawk li johduha kontra Kristu (Isaija 34; Rivelazzjoni 18).
4 Se jkun hemm il-qawmien mill-imwiet u l-gudizzju. Dawk li kellhom l-opportunità li jaccettaw is-sejha t’Alla u rrifjutawha, se jmutu u jinqerdu waqt li mill-banda l-ohra, x’ferh ihossu l-ohrajn meta s-Sultan jghidilhom, “Ejjew, ja mberkin ta’ Missieri, irtu s-saltna mhejjija ghalikom mis-tisjis tad-dinja” (Mattew 25:34).

META GHANDU JIRRITORNA MA NAFUX SEWWA
“Imma dak il-jum u dik is-siegha ma jafhom ebda bniedem...Izda bhalma kien fi zmien Noè, hekk tkun ukoll il-migja ta’ Bin il-bniedem...Ghax bhalma f’dawk il-jiem ta’ qabel id-dilluvju kienu jieklu u jixorbu, jizzewgu u jinghataw ghaz-zwieg, sal-jum li fih Noè dahal fl-arka. U ma kinux jafu sama gie d-dilluvju, u hadhom ilkoll; hekk ukoll tkun il-migja ta’ Bin il-bniedem... Ishru mela; ghax ma tafux f’liema siegha ghandu jigi Sidkom...Ghalhekk intom ukoll kunu mhejjijin; ghax fis-siegha li ma tahsbux fiha jigi Bin il-bniedem” (Mattew 24:36-39, 42, 44).

GESÙ KRISTU GHANDU JERGA’ LURA BIEX ISALTAN FUQ ID-DINJA KOLLHA, MINN FUQ IT-TRON TAS-SULTAN DAVID
“Ghax tweldilna tifel…il-Princep tal-paci. Mill-kobor tas-setgha u s-sliem tieghu ma jkunx hemm tmiem, fuq it-tron ta’ David u fuq saltnatu, biex iwaqqafha, u jwettaqha bil-haqq u bis-sewwa” (Isaija 9:6-7).
“U mbaghad jaraw lil Bin il-bniedem gej fis-shab b’qawwa kbira u glorja; u mbaghad jibghat lill-angli tieghu, u jigbor flimkien il-mahturin tieghu mill-erbat irjieh, minn tarf l-art sa tarf is-sema” (Mark 13:26).
“U qalilha l-anglu: la tibzax Marija; ghax int sibt grazzja quddiem Alla. U, ara, int tnissel f’gufek u tiled iben u ssemmih Gesù. Hu jkun kbir, u jissemma Bin il-Gholi, u l-Mulej Alla jaghtih it-tron ta’ missieru David, u jsaltan ghal dejjem fuq id-dar ta’ Gakobb, u ghal saltnatu ma jkunx hemm tmiem” (Luqa 1:30-33).
“Ma tarawnix, sama jasal il-waqt li tghidu: Imbierek min gej f’isem il-Mulej” (Luqa 13:35).
“Ara, gej mas-shab; u tarah kull ghajn, u dawk ukoll li nifduh; u jixhru minhabba fih it-tribujiet kollha tal-art” (Rivelazzjoni 1:7).

L-IDEA TAS-SALTNA T’ALLA M'HIJIEX XI HAGA GDIDA
Il-bicca l-kbira tal-bnedmin jemmnu li din is-saltna hija xi genna fis-smewwiet fejn imorru t-tajbin wara mewthom jew xi wahda mill-knejjes stabbiliti. Dan it-twemmin m’huwiex it-taghlim tal-Iskrittura.
Il-Bibbja tghallimna li din is-saltna li ghandha tkun stabbilita se tkun imperu dinji, imperu veru u tangibbli li wiehed jara u jmiss u se jkun imwaqqaf meta Gesù jigi lura fid-dinja mis-smewwiet biex isaltan mill-belt ta’ Gerusalem.
L-idea tas-saltna t’Alla m’hijiex xi haga gdida li l-Bibbja tirriferi ghaliha fit-Testment il-Gdid biss. Is-saltna t’Alla kellha l-bidu taghha meta Alla hatar lill-poplu Lhudi biex ikun in-nazzjon maghzul minnu u ghal dan il-ghan il-poplu Lhudi kien immexi minn ghadd ta’ slaten, xi whud individwi li mxew tajjeb u ohrajn li kienu qarrieqa. Sfortunatament maz-zminijiet l-arroganza tal-poplu Lhudi, il-hafna nuqqasijiet u t-twarrib tal-ligijiet divini, wasslu lil dan-nazzjon f’qaghda kerha. Il-poplu ma baqax jirrifletti d-dominju li fih Alla kien il-Kmand; tant kien hekk, li ftit mijiet ta’ snin wara, Alla gab fix-xejn il-linja rjali. Assalt mill-armata tal-Babilonja fuq Gerusalem kien wasal -- ma kienx se jkun hemm saltna vizibbli tal-Mulej ghal hafna snin wara. Intqal lill-ahhar re tal-Lhud:
“herba! herba! herba! Naghmilha: hi [il-kuruna tar-renju] wkoll ma tibqax izjed, sakemm jigi min lilu tmiss bil-haqq, u naghtihielu” (Ezekjel 21:27).
Dak li ntqal kienet profezija tad-dezolazzjoni tal-linja rjali, sakemm l-akbar werriet tat-tron kellu jigi - Gesù Kristu! Fi kliem iehor, is-saltna t’Alla fuq din l-art intemmet mal-ahhar re Sedekija u ghandha terga’ titwaqqaf mat-tieni wasla ta’ Gesù fid-dinja.

IT-TAJBIN ISALTNU FID-DINJA MA’ KRISTU F’SALTNA TA’ HENA U SLIEM
“U fiz-zmien dawk is-slaten [l-ahhar zminijiet], iqajjem Alla tas-sema saltna li qatt ma titwaqqa’; saltna li ma tithalliex ghal poplu iehor; izda hi tfarrak u teqred dawk is-saltniet kollha, u hi tibqa’ ghal dejjem” (Danjel 2:44).
“U s-saltna u s-setgha u l-kobor tas-saltniet taht is-sema kollu, ikunu moghtijin lill-poplu tal-qaddisin tal-Gholi, li s-saltna tieghu tkun saltna ta’ dejjem, u s-setghat kollha jaqduh u jisimghu minnu” (Danjel 7:27).
“Hu jxandar is-sliem lill-gnus; saltnatu tkun minn bahar sa bahar, u mix-xmara sa truf l-art” (Zakkarija 9:10).
“Hu jkun kbir, u jissemma Bin il-Gholi; u l-Mulej Alla jaghtih it-tron ta’ missieru David; u jsaltan ghal dejjem fuq id-dar ta’ Gakobb, u ghal saltnatu ma jkunx hemm tmiem” (Luqa 1:32-33).
“U [int] ghamiltna ghal Alla taghna slaten u qassisin, u ahna nsaltnu fuq l-art” (Rivelazzjoni 5:10).

ALLA QAL LI GERUSALEM GHAD TKUN IL-BELT KAPITALI TAD-DINJA MATUL IS-SALTNA TA’ KRISTU FEJN, SKONT EZEKJEL, GHAD JINBENA TEMPJU GDID
“F’dak iz-zmien isejhu lil Gerusalem, it-tron tal-Mulej, u l-gnus kollha jingemghu fiha, ghal isem il-Mulej, f’Gerusalem, u lanqas jimxu aktar wara l-ebusija ta’ qalbhom il-hazina”(Geremija 3:17). “Arga’ niedi u ghid: Hekk jghid il-Mulej tal-ezercti; il-bliet tieghi ghad ifuru bil-gid, u l-Mulej jarga’ jhenn ghal Sijon, u jarga’ jahtar lil Gerusalem” (Zakkarija 1:17).
“U hekk hafna popli u gnus qawwija jigu Gerusalem ifittxu l-Mulej tal-ezercti, u jitolbu l-grazzja tal-Mulej” (Zakkarija 8:22).
Gesù se jsaltan mill-Gholja ta’ Sijon, jigifieri mill-belt ta’ Gerusalem:
“Sabiha ghall-gholi, il-ghaxqa tal-art kollha, hi l-gholja ta’ Sijon, fuq in-nahiet tat-tramuntana, il-belt tas-Sultan il-kbir” (Salmi 48:2).
Dan l-avveniment se jkun it-twettiq tal-profezija fit-thabbira tal-anglu Gabrijiel li Gesù kellu jkun dak is-sultan li kellu joqghod fuq it-tron tas-sultan David, li minnu tnissel Gesù:
“Hu jkun kbir, u jissemma Bin il-Gholi; u l-Mulej Alla jaghtih it-tron ta’ missieru David” (Luqa 1:32).
“U jigri fl-ahhar jiem, illi l-muntanja ta’ dar il-Mulej tkun imwaqqfa f’ras il-muntanji, u tintrafa’ ’l fuq mill-gholjiet, u l-gnus kollha jigru lejha. U hafna nies imorru, u jghidu: Ejjew, ha nitilghu fuq il-muntanja tal-Mulej, fid-dar t’Alla ta’ Gakobb; u hu jghallimna triqatu, u ahna nimxu fil-moghdijiet tieghu; ghax minn Sijon tohrog il-ligi, u l-kelma tal-Mulej minn Gerusalem. U jaghmel haqq fost il-gnus, u jcanfar hafna popli; u huma jahdmu sjufhom f’sikek, u l-lanez taghhom fi mniegel; gens ma jarfax sejf ghal gens iehor, u lanqas qatt izjed ma jitharrgu ghall-gwerra” (Isaija 2:1-4).

L-AHBAR TAJBA TAS-SALTNA
Meta kien fid-dinja Kristu pprietka dwar il-Vangelu tas-saltna u qabbel din is-saltna f’xi parabboli tieghu ma’ tezor u gawhra prezzjuza. Gesù Kristu ghallem lid-dixxipli tieghu u qalilhom specifikament biex jitolbu halli din is-saltna t’Alla tigi fid-dinja:
“Missierna li inti fis-smewwiet...Tigi saltnatek...” (Mattew 6:9-10).
Dan hu l-VANGELU jew L-AHBAR TAJBA li Gesù gabilna u offrielna.
“Is-saltniet ta’ din id-dinja saru s-saltniet ta’ Sidna, u ta’ Kristu tieghu; u hu jsaltan ghal dejjem” (Rivelazzjoni 11:15).
Id-dixxipli ta’ Gesù ferhu mhux ftit bil-prospett li kellha terga’ titfacca s-saltna t’Alla fuq l-art ta’ Izrael. Wara li kien qam mill-imwiet id-dixxipli staqsew lil Gesù: “Mulej, jaqaw f’dan iz-zmien sa terga’ twaqqaf is-saltna ta’ Izrael?” (Atti 1:6).

IL-MILLENNJU
Iz-zmien li Kristu jkun Sultan tas-Slaten u li jdum elf sena huwa maghruf bhala l-Millennju.
Matul dawk is-snin dak kollu li hu hazin fid-dinja jinqered waqt li d-dinja tinbidel bil-mod il-mod ghall-ahjar taht id-direzzjoni ta’ Kristu meghjun minn dawk kollha li maz-zminijiet obdew il-ligi t’Alla u nsabu li tixirqilhom il-hajja eterna.
“Imbierek u qaddis hu min ghandu sehem fl-ewwel qawma…[dawn] ikunu qassisin t’Alla u ta’ Kristu, u jsaltnu mieghu elf sena” (Rivelazzjoni 20:6).
Dawn li gejjin huma ftit mill-kambjamenti kolossali li se jsehhu fis-saltna t’Alla fuq din l-art.
Flok il-biza’, il-guh u l-mard, se jkun hawn il-paci, il-haqq, is-sewwa u s-sahha:
“Ma jkollhom qatt aktar guh, u lanqas ghatx; u la tiddi fuqhom ix-xemx, u lanqas ebda shana tikwi...u Alla jimsah id-dmugh kollu minn ghajnejhom” (Rivelazzjoni 7:16-17).
“Imbaghad ghajnejn il-ghomja jinfethu, widnejn it-torox jinfethu. Imbaghad dak li jzappap jaqbez bhac-cerv, u lsien l-imbikkmin jghanni” (Isaija 35:5-6).
Se jkun zmien meta l-hajja titwal:
“Ma jkunx hawn aktar fiha tarbija li tghix ftit jiem, u lanqas xih li ma jtemmx sninu; ghax zaghzugh imut ta’ mitt sena” (Isaija 65:20).
L-ucuh tar-raba’ se jkunu abbundanti ghall-bidwi:
“Ikun hemm hafna qamh fuq l-art fuq irjus il-muntanji; il-frott tieghu jixxejjer bhac-cedru tal-Libanu” (Salmi 72:16).
“Il-muntanji jqattru l-inbid gdid, u l-gholjiet inixxu l-halib, u l-widien kollha ta’ Guda jfuru bl-ilma” (Goel 3:18).
“Ara, jigu l-jiem, jghid il-Mulej, meta dak li jahrat jilhaq lil dak li jahsad, u dak li jaghsar il-gheneb lil dak li jizra’ z-zerriegha” (Ghamos 9:13).
“Ghax ikun hemm is-sliem ghaz-zerriegha; id-dielja taghti l-frott taghha, l-art taghti l-prodott taghha, u s-smewwiet jaghtu n-nida taghhom; u jien naghti lill-bqija tal-poplu dan kollu” (Zakkarija 8:12).
Il-qerq u l-hazen se jigu mrazzna:
(Isaija 2:4, 11; Danjel 2:44)
Il-qaddisin, jigifieri dawk li se jinghataw il-premju taghhom tal-hajja eterna, se jigvernaw fuq il-gnus tad-dinja kollha mas-Sultan Gesù:
(Rivelazzjoni 2:26-27; 3:21; 5:9-10; 20:6)

L-GHARAB JAHDMU ID F’ID MAL-LHUD
Wiehed mill-isbah prospetti ghall-futur hu dak tal-armonija u l-ftehim li se jezistu bejn ghedewwa antiki. Il-vizjoni profetika li se titwettaq tal-lupu u l-haruf li se jirghu flimkien, m’hijiex biss deskrizzjoni sabiha ta’ armonija bejn il-bniedem u l-bhejjem, imma din tirriferi wkoll ghall-paci u l-hbiberija li se jkun hawn specjalment bejn nazzjonijiet li xi darba kienu ghedewwa ta’ xulxin u li ggieldu kontra xulxin. Isaija jitkellem dwar l-Gharab li jigu f’Gerusalem meta dawn “igibu deheb u ncens; u jxandru t-tifhir tal-Mulej” (Isaija 60:6). Il-profeta jpingilna lill-Gharab huma u jghinu fil-bini u t-twaqqif tal-hitan tal-belt il-gdida waqt li jkunu jahdmu mal-Lhud li gejjin mill-istess missier Abraham. L-Gharab jindokraw il-merhliet tal-Lhud u jsiru bdiewa u haddiema fl-oqsma tad-dwieli. Dan se jkun il-kuntrarju ta’ kif inhuma l-affarijiet bhalissa fil-Lvant Nofsani. Il-weghdiet li kien ghamel Alla zmien twil ilu lin-naha tal-Gharab min-nisel ta’ Abraham zgur li ghad iridu jsehhu.

WARA L-MILLENNJU
Wara dawn l-elf sena se jkun hawn it-tieni gudizzju ghal dawk li jkunu twieldu u ghexu f’dawk iz-zminijiet tal-Millennju u mbaghad dawk in-nies mortali jsirilhom il-haqq. Dan it-tieni haqq se jkun ibbazat fuq l-istess principji tal-ewwel haqq meta jirritorna Kristu mis-smewwiet:
“Hlas id-dnub hi l-mewt; izda l-ghotja t’Alla hi l-hajja ta’ dejjem f’Gesù Kristu Sidna” (Rumani 6:23). Fi ftit kliem, id-dnub jithallas bil-kastig tal-mewt ghal dejjem, u l-premju ghat-tajbin ikun il-hajja eterna.
Wara dawn il-grajjiet drammatici, fid-dinja jkun baqa’ biss nies moghnija bil-hajja eterna. B’hekk ikun spicca x-xoghol ta’ Sidna Gesù Kristu bhala s-Sultan tad-dinja. Ma jkollux aktar nies mortali sudditi tieghu biex isaltan fuqhom, u l-akbar hwejjeg qerrieda tal-bniedem, jigifieri d-dnub u l-mewt, jigu fix-xejn. Ir-rieda t’Alla issa tkun tassew fuq l-art. Alla jkun sema’ t-talba tal-“Missierna”. L-Appostlu Pawlu jikteb fuq dawn il-hwejjeg minghajr dettalji x'se jigri sewwa:
“Imbaghad jigi t-tmiem, meta hu [Gesù] jaghti s-saltna ’l Alla l-Missier, wara li jkun qered kull hakma u kull setgha u qawwa. Ghax jehtieg isaltan, sa ma jqieghed l-ghedewwa kollha taht riglejh. L-ahhar ghadu li jinqered hi l-mewt...U meta kollox ikun imqieghed tahtu, imbaghad l-Iben innifsu wkoll jitqieghed taht Alla li jkun qeghedlu kollox tahtu, biex Alla jkun kollox f’kollox” (1 Korintin 15:24-28).

TITLIFX DIN L-OPPORTUNITÀ UNIKA LI TKUN PARTI MINN DIK IS-SALTNA T’ALLA FUQ DIN L-ART. SE JKUN FUTUR MERAVILJUZ GHAD-DINJA KOLLHA. GESÙ KRISTU GHANDU JIGI LURA FID-DINJA BHALA S-SULTAN TAS-SLATEN. MELA AQRA L-BIBBJA FEJN JINSAB DAN IT-TAGHLIM DWAR IS-SALTNA T’ALLA U ITLOB B’QALBEK KOLLHA:
“MISSIERNA LI INTI FIS-SMEWWIET, JITQADDES ISMEK.
TIGI SALTNATEK. IKUN LI TRID INT
KIF FIS-SEMA HEKKDA FL-ART.”

22 December 2009

2 CHRISTMAS POEMS






IL-HARUF U L-ILJUN

ZEWG POEZIJI FUQ IL-MILIED

IL-PRESEPJU TA' TFULITI
(MIKTUBA FL-1959, MALTA)

Bilkemm ghaxar snin kelli,
presepju hdimt id-dar;
insejt il-giri barra
ta' wara nofsinhar.

Kemm grejna, jiena u shabi,
ghas-saghtar! Ghajjenin
go djarna lkoll ergajna
bi xkejjer mghobbijin.

Qaluli l-hbieb kif naghmel
xi gholja wara l-ghar,
il-palm, il-belt fil-gholi,
u d-dawl kemxejn musfar.

Xi ftit pasturi xtrajthom
bil-flus li kont gemmajt,
il-magi u l-igmla taghhom
m'ghand tifel iddubbajt.

Il-belt fuq wara bnejtha
tal-karti u bejn l-gholjiet
ferrixt bhal trab bajdani
li jleqq daqs l-ilmijiet.

Il-mithna fuq il-gholja
ghamiltha tal-kartun
u f'id ir-r'ghajja kollha
deffist ukoll bastun.

Tajjart fuq l-ghar zewg angli
u rbatthom b'zewg hajtiet,
u iehor qed ihabbar
lir-r'ghajja bil-merhliet.

U meta l-lejl imqaddes
li twieled Gesù fih
bhal holma wasal fuqna
u qalbi ddawlet bih,

bidla tal-ghageb saret:
hassejt li gewwa l-ghar
kull wicc pastur ha l-hajja
u b'demm il-Hajja far.

Ghalija s-siegha kienet
milja ta' ferh bla tmiem,
siegha ta' hajr u tama,
ta' mhabba minghajr kliem.



FESTI TAL-MILIED
(MIKTUBA FL-1984, L-AWSTRALJA)

Ma nemminx bil-Milied,
karozzi jnemmlu lejn villaggatura,
tined f'ringieli max-xatt,
u hbula mtaqqla bi hwejjeg tal-ghawm,
ikel u xorb bla razan,
tbahrid u zfin,
hsejjes ta' muturi
fuq bahar u art,
raddiena, raggiera ta' dwal u ward
ma' ras Dijonisju.
B'dal-Milied ma nemminx.

Mela, huti, ejjew, u flimkien
fuq in-naha l-ohra tal-gholja,
fis-skiet
nghollu t-tazzi
bis-sahha ta' tarbija f'maxtura;
nieklu hbejza bla hmira.
B'tifkira nizfnu
fuq in-naha l-ohra tal-gholja,
imdawrin b'armata t'angli mistura,
nistennew jitla' mill-wied,
mhux il-haruf, imma l-iljun
tat-tribù ta' Guda.
B'dan nemmen, b'dat-twelid biss.


JOE SALIBA

19 December 2009

A STUDY ON THE DEVIL

STUDJU FUQ IX-XITAN

L-IDEA FALZA TAX-XITAN

ID-DEMONJU U X-XITAN: XI JFISSRU?

L-AKBAR GHADU TAL-BNIEDEM HUWA D-DNUB U MHUX XI HLEJQA SOPRANATURALI.
“Ghal din ir-raguni deher Bin Alla, biex jeqred l-opri tax-xitan” (1 Gwanni 3:8).

L-IMPORTANZA TAS-SUGGETT
Il-kwotazzjoni ta’ fuq mill-Bibbja tenfasizza l-htiega x’wiehed ghandu jifhem meta nsemmu d-Demonju u x-Xitan. Billi Kristu deher sabiex jeqred u jgib fix-xejn l-opri tad-Demonju jew tax-Xitan, hija haga cara li ma nkunux nistghu nifhmu l-pjan divin tas-salvazzjoni, jekk ma jirnexxilniex naslu biex nifhmu kompletament u niddefenixxu dawn it-termini.
Hija hasra kbira li l-ideat kurrrenti ma jaqblu xejn ma’ dak li tghallem il-Bibbja fuq dan is-suggett.
Ghandna nifhmu li meta bil-Malti nuzaw il-kelma “demonju” jew “xitan” inkunu qeghdin nirreferu ghall-istess haga ghalkemm forsi ma nafux li z-zewg kelmiet ghandhom origini differenti minn xulxin u m’ghandhomx l-istess tifsira kif ser naraw f’dan l-istudju.
Xi taghlim jghid li d-demonju jew ix-xitan huwa mostru sopruman, anglu li darba dineb u waqa’ u issa qieghed jiddomina fuq l-imhuh tal-umanità waqt li jhajjar lill-bniedem ghad-dnub. Din id-duttrina tohloq biza’ kbir tad-demonju u tipprovdi l-iskuza tad-dnub billi l-bnedmin iwahhlu fih ghal kulma jaghmlu hazin.
Dan it-taghlim, barra li m’huwiex ibbazat fuq l-Iskrittura, imur ukoll kontra l-imhabba u l-omnipotenza t’Alla. Kif qatt jista’ jkun li Alla ta’ mhabba jhalli lill-bniedem, dghajjef u mortali kif inhu, li jisfa ddominat minn anglu midneb li ghandu l-qawwa biex jeqirdu? U jekk Alla huwa omnipotenti, ghaliex ma jehlisx mid-demonju darba ghal dejjem jekk huwa tassew anglu li darba waqa’ mis-sema?
Ghalhekk dan it-taghlim huwa illogiku u bla sens. Min-naha l-ohra t-taghlim tal-Bibbja juri li d-demonju huwa figura aktar familjari milli nahsbu: jigifieri li d-demonju m’huwiex xi anglu li xi darba dineb u tkecca mill-genna, izda d-demonju hija kelma li hi uzata biex tfisser in-natura umana bl-aspetti kollha taghha. Il-Bibbja tghallimna li ahna stess responsabbli tad-dnubiet li naghmlu, izda tghallimna wkoll il-mod kif jista’ jinhafer id-dnub u kif tista’ tigi kkontrollata n-natura taghna. Dan hu essenzjali ghas-salvazzjoni ta’ kull wiehed u wahda minna.

KIF IL-BIBBJA TIDDEFENIXXI X-XITAN
Il-missjoni ta’ Kristu hija mfissra hekk:
“Mela billi l-ulied jigifieri dawk li Kristu gie biex isalva ghandhom l-istess laham u demm, hu stess ha sehem minn dan l-istess demm u laham, biex permezz tal-mewt jeqred lil dak li kellu l-hakma tal-mewt, jigifieri x-xitan; u jehles lil dawk li minhabba l-biza’ tal-mewt kienu suggetti ghall-jasar hajjithom kollha” (Lhud 2:14-15).
Din id-dikjarazzjoni tal-Iskrittura tghallem dawn il-hwejjeg:
1 Kristu gie biex jeqred lix-xitan jew lid-demonju.
2 Ix-xitan jew id-demonju hija dik il-haga li kellha l-qawwa li ggib il-mewt.
3 Kristu ha sehem min-natura umana u miet sabiex jeqred lid-demonju.
4 Ir-rizultat ta’ dak li ghamel kien li b’hekk hu heles lill-ohrajn mill-hakma tad-demonju u mill-mewt.
Jekk nistghu naghtu tifsira mill-Iskrittura ta’ x’inhi dik il-haga li Kristu gie biex jeqred u x’inhi dik il-haga li ghandha s-setgha li ggib il-mewt, allura naslu biex inkunu nafu x’nifhmu meta nuzaw il-kelma “demonju” jew “xitan”.
Skont il-Bibbja z-zewg hwejjeg jaslu ghal idea jew tifsira wahda: ID-DNUB!
Ara dawn il-versi li jixhdu dak li semmejna:
(A) KRISTU GIE BIEX JEQRED ID-DNUB:
“Deher darba fl-ahhar taz-zminijiet biex ihassar id-dnub bis-sagrificcju tieghu nnifsu” (Lhud 9:26).
“Kristu miet ghal dnubietna” (1 Korintin 15:3).
“hu stess rafa’ dnubietna f’gismu fuq il-ghuda” (1 Pietru 2:24).
“hu deher biex inehhi dnubietna” (1 Gwanni 3:5).
(B) KIEN ID-DNUB LI ORIGINARJAMENT GAB IL-MEWT:
“hlas id-dnub hi l-mewt” (Rumani 6:23).
“Bi bniedem wiehed [mhux permezz ta’ xi demonju sopranaturali] id-dnub dahal fid-dinja, u l-mewt bid-dnub” (Rumani 5:12).
“In-niggieza tal-mewt hu d-dnub” (1 Korintin 15:56).
Dawn il-kwotazzjonijiet jixhdu bic-car illi Kristu gie sabiex jeqred id-dnub u li kien id-dnub li gab il-mewt fostna. Ghalhekk ikollna nikkonkludu illi x-xitan huwa sinonimu tad-dnub.
L-idea falza illi d-demonju huwa anglu ribelluz li dineb u waqa’ tidher mill-fatt li Gesù Kristu, bniedem bhalna, ma sata’ qatt bil-mewt tieghu jeqred il-qawwa ta’ anglu sopruman. Mela ghandna nirrijalizzaw li l-kelma “demonju’ jew “xitan” ghandha x’taqsam mad-dnub u tirreprezenta n-natura tal-bniedem u mhux xi anglu li hadha kontra Alla u mbaghad Alla keccieh mill-genna. Nirrijalizzaw ukoll illi d-dnub jigi minn go fina stess u li d-demm ta’ Kristu Sidna ghandu l-qawwa li jehlisna mill-hakma tad-dnub u jsalvana. Id-demm ta’ Gesù hija l-ghodda li permezz taghha jinhafru dnubietna u fl-ahhar jinqered id-dnub bil-qawmien mill-mewt ghall-hajja eterna (1 Korintin 15:20-26).

X’INHUWA D-DNUB?
Primarjament, id-dnub huwa att ta’ dizubbidjenza (1 Gwanni 3:4). L-ewwel dnub li sar kien ikkastigat billi l-bniedem safa suggett ghall-mewt (Genesi 3:19), u b’hekk il-mewt saret parti min-natura umana.
Imma skont il-Bibbja d-dnub ghandu tifsira ohra sekondarja. Huwa miktub li l-bnedmin, “saru midinbin” (Rumani 5:19). Gesù huwa maghruf u msejjah bhala dak li, “Alla ghamlu biex ikun dnub ghalina” (2 Korintin 5:21), dak li, “miet darba ghad-dnub” (Rumani 6:10) u dak ukoll li wasal biex jigi lura, “u jidher ghat-tieni darba, mhux biex inehhi d-dnub, imma ghas-salvazzjoni ta’ dawk li jistennewh” (Lhud 9:28).
L-uzu sekondarju tal-kelma “dnub” timplika l-istat ta’ imperfezzjoni fizika li kienet ikkagunata mill-ksur attwali tal-ligi t’Alla (Rumani 5:12) wara li nhalaq il-bniedem. Il-bnedmin m’humiex hatja tal-ksur tal-ligijiet t’Alla jekk fil-fatt ma jiksrux dawk il-ligijiet jew kmandamenti tieghu. Il-bnedmin m’humiex maghdudin li huma hatjin ghax twieldu membri tal-umanità. Huma hatjin biss tad-dnubiet li jaghmlu huma stess. Madankollu l-bniedem, f’sens sekondarju, billi gej minn Adam, huwa maghdud bhala midneb u suggett ghall-mewt. Gesù m’ghamel l-ebda dnub allavolja twieled mir-razza ta’ Adam, u kellu l-istess xewqat u gibdiet tal-gisem li ghandu kull bniedem iehor. Il-gibdiet tal-gisem li kellu Gesù setghu, kieku halliehom, jeghlbuh u jwaqqghuh fid-dnub.
Ghalkemm kull bniedem li twieled wiret l-istat ta’ imperfezzjoni fizika (Rumani 5:17), dan ma jfissirx li l-bnedmin huma responsabbli ta’ dan. Dan hu wirt li hadna minn Adam. Kull bniedem isir responsabbli meta jsir jaf x’irid minnu Alla, u Alla jaghmel haqq minnu jekk dak li jkun jirrifjuta l-ghajnuna t’Alla biex jikkontrolla l-gibdiet hziena li wiret bhala parti mill-umanità.
Meta l-Appostlu Pawlu kiteb u ddikjara illi, “il-hlas tad-dnub hija l-mewt” (Rumani 6:23) u li d-demonju jew ix-xitan huwa, “dak li kellu l-hakma tal-mewt” (Lhud 2:14), huwa kien qed jirreferi ghan-natura umana u ghalhekk dghajfa li ghandu kulhadd. Din in-natura umana taghna l-bnedmin tissejjah “il-gisem tad-dnub” (Rumani 8:3) ghaliex jekk wiehed ihalliha tirkbu jaqa’ fid-dnub u fl-ahhar imut ghal dejjem.
Kif ghallem l-Appostlu Pawlu, hija minhabba li n-natura umana twassalna ghad-dnub li Gesù, “hu wkoll ha sehem minn dan l-istess demm u laham, biex permezz tal-mewt jeqred lil dak li kellu l-hakma tal-mewt, jigifieri, ix-xitan” (Lhud 2:14).
Gesù rnexxielu jaghmel dan billi kien ubbidjenti perfettament matul hajtu kollha sakemm miet, u t-tjubija tieghu li kienet bla tebgha, servietu bhala garanzija ta’ qawmien mill-imwiet u l-glorja ta’ dejjem (Filippin 2:8-9; Atti 2:24). Ghalhekk matul hajtu kollha sakemm miet fuq is-salib huwa dejjem hareg rebbieh fuq il-qawwa tax-xitan (in-natura umana, dghajfa ghall-ahhar), u b’hekk fetah it-triq ghar-rebha simili, permezz tal-mahfra tad-dnubiet, ghal dawk kollha li jersqu quddiem Alla f’isem Ibnu.

X’GHANDU X’JAQSAM ID-DNUB MAN-NATURA UMANA
Il-fatt illi d-dnub ghandu x’jaqsam hafna u huwa intimament konness man-natura umana jidher sewwa mill-Ittra lir-Rumani Kapitlu 7, fejn l-Appostlu Pawlu jiddiskuti dawn il-hwejjeg fit-tul. Ma hemm l-ebda hjiel jew referenza ghall-ezistenza ta’ xi xitan sopranaturali li xoghlu hu li jittanta l-bniedem ghad-dnub. Ghall-kuntrarju, l-Appostlu jikteb hekk:
“Issa mela mhux aktar jien li naghmel dan, imma d-dnub li jghammar fija”(vers 17);
“Imma jien nara ligi ohra fil-membri ta’ gismi...u tjassarni ghal-ligi tad-dnub li hi fil-membri ta’ gismi” (vers 23);
“Ghax jien naf li fija, (jigifieri, f’gismi), ma tghammar ebda haga tajba; ghax ir-rieda qieghda fija, izda kif naghmel dak li hu tajjeb ma nafx” (vers 18).
L-awtur ta’ dal-kliem dejjem sab ruhu wicc imb wicc ma’ taqbida mentali. Kien jixtieq jimxi skont ir-rieda t’Alla, izda din ix-xewqa gabitu f’konflitt mal-gibdiet ta’ gismu, u dawn il-gibdiet umana kienu hekk qawwija li kultant kien jaqa’ fid-dnub. Ghalhekk kiteb:
“Ghax it-tajjeb li rrid jien ma naghmilx; imma l-hazin li ma rridx, dak naghmel” (vers 19).
Huwa ta l-htija tad-dghufija ta’ gismu lin-natura umana tieghu u ddikjara:
“Ja miskin li jien! Min jehlisni mill-gisem ta’ dil-mewt?” (vers 24).
Il-kelma tal-Vangelu tatu t-twegiba li kien qed ifittex. Irringrazzja lil Alla li r-rebha kienet iggarantita permezz ta’ Gesù Kristu. F’isem Gesù setghu jinhafrulu dnubietu, jircievi s-sahha spiritwali biex johodha u johrog rebbieh fuq il-gibdiet tal-gisem (Filippin 4:13), u meta jerga’ jigi Gesù fid-dinja jkollu l-assigurazzjoni ta’ hajja eterna wara l-qawmien mill-mewt (1 Korintin 15:22-23, 53-54). Ghalhekk ma baqax jara lilu nnifsu bhala bniedem li jghix imjassar mid-dnub u mill-mewt. L-ispirtu ta’ Kristu li kellu fih (2 Korintin 13:5) ittrijonfa fuq “id-demonju” (jigifieri, il-ligi tad-dnub u l-gibdiet hziena li kellu f’gismu bhala parti min-natura umana (Rumani 7:23) u b’hekk il-fidi tieghu rebhet fuq il-biza’.
Dik l-esperjenza fil-hajja tal-Appostlu Pawlu nistghu naghmluha taghna wkoll.

KIF BEDA D-DNUB
Meta ssawwar il-holqien Alla hares lejn xoghlu, “U Alla ra kulma ghamel, u, ara, kien tajjeb wisq” (Genesi 1:31). Is-serp ukoll kien “tajjeb” skont gensu, ghaliex, sa dak iz-zmien, kien ghadu ma ttantax lil Eva ghad-dnub.
Imma jekk id-deskrizzjoni ta’ kull haga li nhalqet minn Alla kienet tapplika ghal kollox u kollox kien “tajjeb wisq”, fejn kien id-demonju jew ix-xitan? Ix-xitan kif jifhmuh hafna knejjes ma kienx jezisti! Anki n-natura umana f’dawk l-ewwel zminijiet qabel id-dnub kienet differenti minn kif saret tassew wara.
Fl-ewwel kapitli tal-Ktieb tal-Genesi ma nsibu l-ebda referenza ghad-demonju jew ghax-xitan u lanqas li d-demonju kellu x’jaqsam mal-mod kif dahal id-dnub fid-dinja.
L-ewwel partijiet tal-Bibbja, madankollu, juru illi l-bniedem ma baqax dak li kien originarjament, jigifieri, fi stat ta’ “tajjeb wisq”, u beda juri inklinazzjonijiet hziena.
X’kienet dik il-haga li gabet din il-bidla fil-bniedem? It-twegiba hija wahda: ID-DNUB. L-istorja semplici tal-Genesi tghid kif Alla pogga lil Adam u lil Eva fil-Gnien tal-Gheden, ghallimhom xi principji ta’ tjubija, tahom il-ligi biex jobduha, u offrielhom, jekk jobduh, it-tama ta’ hajja eterna bhala premju.
Izda Eva, imsahhra, migbuda u mhajra kif kienet mill-kliem qarrieq tas-serp, kisret il-ligi t’Alla u dinbet (Genesi 3:1-7); u wara hajret lil zewgha Adam biex jaghmel l-istess.
Din il-waqgha fid-dnub u dan l-att ta’ dizubbidjenza kienu kawza tad-demonju? Ghall-kuntrarju. Meta t-tlieta li kienu -- Adam, Eva u s-serp -- ingabu quddiem Alla biex iwiegbu ghall-hazen li kienu ghamlu, huma taw it-tort u wahhlu f’xulxin. Adam wahhal f’martu Eva; Eva tat it-tort lis-serp; imma s-serp ma sata’ jwahhal f’hadd (Genesi 3:12-14).
Skont kif wiegbet Eva, is-serp kien kagun li dahal id-dnub! Jekk dan ma kienx veru, ghaliex is-serp baqa’ sieket u ma ddefendix ruhu? Kellu halq u sata’ jitkellem; kien jilhaqlu aktar mill-annimali l-ohra (Genesi 3:1).
Is-serp sata’ jwahhal u jaghti t-tort lid-demonju jekk id-demonju kien tassew jezisti! Imma fil-fatt ma kellu lil hadd f’min iwahhal. Xi whud li jemmnu fid-demonju bhala hlejqa sopranaturali jsostnu illi d-demonju f’din l-okkazjoni kien prezenti taht il-forma tas-serp.
Naraw li dan it-taghlim huwa falz meta nsibu illi l-kastig kien direttament moghti lis-serp u mhux lil xi demonju, u ghalhekk dawn huma provi cari li s-serp ma kienx hlief annimal:
“U l-Mulej qal lis-serp: Talli ghamilt dan, inti mishut FOST IL-BHEJJEM KOLLHA, u fuq ID-DBEJJEB KOLLHA tar-raba’; fuq zaqqek timxi, u trab tiekol il-jiem kollha ta’ hajtek” (Genesi 3:14).
Bl-ebda mod ma nistghu nimmaginaw li dal-kliem japplika ghal xi anglu ribelluz li sar demonju u gie biex jittanta lill-ewwel geneturi taghna.
Malli Adam u Eva bdew jithajru b’dak li kien qed jghid is-serp, bdew ihossu fihom ukoll il-gibdiet u x-xewqat li kull bniedem minn dak iz-zmien lil hawn baqa’ jhoss f’gismu, gibdiet u xewqat li jwassluh ghad-dnub (Genesi 3:6). Billi din il-bidla fin-natura ta’ Adam u Eva kienet kawza tal-hazen li hajjarhom ghalih is-serp, is-serp innifsu sar is-simbolu li jirrapprezenta l-bniedem midneb, in-natura umana bin-nuqqasijiet kollha taghha, u d-dnub innifsu (Mattew 23:33). Mill-banda l-ohra nitghallmu illi l-mewt u s-sagrificcju ta’ Sidna Gesù ghandhom il-qawwa li jeqirdu l-hazen li gab is-serp ghall-umanità (Lhud 2:14). Huwa sinifikanti meta wiehed jinnota illi d-dehra ta’ Gesù fuq is-salib tista’ titqabbel mas-serp tal-bronz li tqieghed fuq qasba fid-dezert biex meta xi hadd kien jigdmu xi serp, dan kien ihares lejn is-serp u jfieq (Numri 21:9; Gwanni 3:14). Ghal dawk li jridu jimxu wara Gesù din hija taghlima importanti hafna, jigifieri, li hemm il-htiega li Alla jkun obdut billi l-gibdiet u x-xewqat hziena tal-gisem ikunu msallbin (Galatin 5:24).
Kristu fetah it-triq bhala ezempju ghall-ohrajn. Il-hajja tieghu minghajr dnub kienet ir-rebha kbira fuq il-gisem li minnu nnifsu huwa midneb (Gwanni 6:62), u bil-mewt tieghu fuq is-salib huwa sikket il-gibdiet hziena li kien ihoss huwa nnifsu bhal kull bniedem iehor (Rumani 8:3).
B’dak li rnexxielu jaghmel hu qatel lid-demonju.

ID-DNUB JIGI MINNA NFUSNA
Ghalkemm fil-bidu tal-istorja tal-bniedem il-hajra ghad-dnub giet kagun tat-tentazzjoni esterjuri, minn dak iz-zmien lil hawn l-akbar gibdiet ghad-dnub bdew jigu minn gewwa, jigifieri minna nfusna.
Il-hsibijiet naturali u l-inklinazzjonijiet tal-gisem ghad-dnub u l-hazen jehtieg li jkunu mrazzna jew iddixxiplinati jekk irridu noghgbu ’l Alla. Dawn ix-xewqat hziena jiffurmaw dak li l-Appostlu Pawlu jiddeskrivi bhala, “il-ligi tad-dnub li hi fil-membri ta’ gismi” (Rumani 7:23). F’post iehor ifisser dan billi jikteb hekk fuq ir-relazzjoni bejn Gesù u dawk li jixtiequ jkunu tieghu:
“Miet ghal kulhadd, biex dawk li jghixu MA JGHIXUX AKTAR GHALIHOM INFUSHOM imma ghal dak li miet ghalihom u raga’ qam” (2 Korintin 5:15).
Li “nghixu ghalina nfusna” jfisser li nghixu fid-dnub u skjavi tad-dnub, u ghalhekk, simbolikament, taht il-hakma tad-demonju jew tax-xitan. Kristu ghallem:
“hekk intom ukoll bla dehen? Ma tifhmux, li kull haga li minn barra tidhol fil-bniedem, ma tistax tniggsu...Dak li johrog mill-bniedem, dak inigges il-bniedem. GHAX MINN GEWWA, MILL-QALB TAL-BNEDMIN, johorgu l-hsibijiet hziena, l-adulterji, iz-zena, is-serq, ix-xehha, il-hzunija, il-qerq, il-hajja bla razan...DAWN IL-HWEJJEG HZIENA KOLLHA JIGU MINN GEWWA, u jniggsu l-bniedem” (Mark 7:18-23).
Jekk dawn in-nuqqasijiet kollha gejjin minn gewwa, u mhux minn barra, x’baqa’ ghad-demonju li jaghmel?! Ninnotaw ukoll li Kristu ghallem illi l-bnedmin jitniggsu minn hsibijiet u xewqat hziena li jigu minn gewwa, u mhux minn influwenzi esterjuri. Hija haga cara, mela, li Kristu ma kienx jemmen li jezisti xi xitan sopranaturali, izda, ghall-maqlub, narawh iwissi lis-semmiegha tieghu dwar il-gibdiet hziena li l-bniedem ghandu fih innifsu. Hekk ghallem ukoll Pawlu:
“Ghax il-gisem ghandu xewqat kontra l-Ispirtu, u l-Ispirtu kontra l-gisem; u dawn huma kontra xulxin...Issa l-ghemejjel tal-gisem huma dawn: l-adulterju, iz-zena, il-fahx, it-tbahrid...il-mibeghda, il-glied, il-gelosija...il-ghira, il-qtil, is-sokor...” (Galatin 5:17-21).
Dawn in-nuqqasijiet jikkonstitwixxu “l-ghemejjel tal-gisem” u m’humiex gejjin kawza tad-demonju. Wiehed jista’ jsejhilhom “l-opri tax-xitan” (1Gwanni 3:8) li Kristu gie biex jeqred:
“Imma kull bniedem hu mgarrab, meta jkun migbud u mhajjar mill-passjoni tieghu innifsu. Imbaghad meta tehbel il-passjoni, tiled id-dnub; u d-dnub, meta jikber sewwa, igib il-mewt” (Gakbu 1:14-15).
Jekk, kif rajna, dan huwa proprjament l-istat tal-bniedem u n-natura tieghu, ghaliex naghtu l-htija ta’ dnubietna lix-xitan li jittantana ghad-dnub? Jekk ahna tassew onesti maghna nfusna ma rridux hafna intelligenza jew gherf biex nindunaw li din hi tassew in-natura li ngorru maghna. Ghaliex naghmlu d-dnubiet? Biex inpaxxu lilna nfusna u nissodisfaw ix-xewqat hziena li jkollna gewwa fina. Minn dawn l-ghemejjel tal-gisem gejjin il-hafna problemi, hsarat u ghawg fid-dinja. Il-bnedmin jaslu biex iwettqu affarijiet hziena u ta’ deni ghax iridu tassew jaghmluhom minn jeddhom, u mhux ghax jigu influwenzati minn xi mostru ta’ demonju jew xitan.
Min-naha l-ohra, il-verità li tigi permezz ta’ Kristu ghandha l-ghan li tbiddel fil-hajja taghhom ta’ kuljum lil dawk kollha li jemmnu fih u tippreparahom mentalment u moralment ghat-trasformazzjoni fizika li ssehh fihom meta jigi lura Kristu fid-dinja, biex imbaghad dawk il-karatteristici jissoktaw jitjiebu f’natura glorjuza li ma tispicca qatt (Filippin 3:21). B’hekk tigi r-rebha fuq in-natura umana, imsejsa u mibnija kif inhi bhalissa fuq id-dnub u fuq il-mewt, u b’hekk ix-xitan jinqered. Pawlu ghallem hekk:
“Ghax jekk tghixu skont il-gisem, tmutu; imma jekk bl-Ispirtu tmewtu ghemil il-gisem, tghixu” (Rumani 8:13).

X’TIFSIRA GHANDHOM IL-KELMIET “DEMONJU” U “XITAN”
Il-kelma “DEMONJU” intuzat biex jinqallbu mill-Grieg zewg kelmiet totalment differenti minn xulxin, li huma, “DIABOLOS” u “DAIMONION”.
L-ewwel kelma “DIABOLOS” insibuha f’dawk il-versi li xi nies jikkwotaw biex jaghtu prova tat-twemmin taghhom fl-ezistenza tad-demonju sopranaturali. Bhala kelma din tfisser “avversarju”, “ghadu”, “giddieb”, “maqdari”, u “xi hadd li jaghti xi malafama, jixli jew jixhed hazin”. Ghalkemm il-kelma originali bil-Grieg “DIABOLOS” generalment inqalbet bhala “devil” bl-Ingliz u “demonju” jew “xitan” bil-Malti, inqalbet ukoll bil-kelmiet “dawk li jqasqsu” (1 Timotju 3:11), u “kalunjaturi”, jigifieri nies li jaghtu l-malafama (2 Timotju 3:3; Titus 2:3). Fid-traduzzjonijiet tal-Bibbja bil-Malti l-kelma “DIABOLOS” inqalbet u saret “xitan” li m’ghandha x’taqsam xejn mal-original, imma hi l-verzjoni Maltija tal-kelma bil-Lhudi “satan”.
Kif sejrin naraw aktar car ’il quddiem, fl-ebda post ma nsibu din il-kelma uzata b’referenza ghal xi anglu li dineb u tkecca mill-genna.
It-tieni kelma fl-original “DAIMONION” hija wkoll maqluba ghall-Ingliz “devil”, u ghall-Malti “demonju” jew “xitan”, imma proprjament il-kelma tradotta m’ghandha x’taqsam xejn mat-tifsira li hemm fl-original. “Demonju” jew “demon” bl-Ingliz hija kelma totalment differenti minn “DIABOLOS” u hija uzata ghal xi persuna marida, kif sejrin naraw.
Min-naha l-ohra, “xitan” bil-Malti, u “satan” bl-Ingliz, hija kelma gejja mil-Lhudi u nqalbet biex taghti s-sens ta’ “avversarju” jew “ghadu”. Il-kelma originali sikwit insibuha maqluba kif ghandha tkun fil-Bibbja, izda minhabba l-pregudizzju tat-tradutturi tal-Bibbja li l-bicca l-kbira kienu u ghadhom jemmnu fl-idea tax-xitan, il-kelma nqalbet bil-kelma “xitan” u mhux “avversarju” kif suppost ghandha tkun skont l-original.
Ezempju ta’ dan insibuh fis-Salm 109:6 fejn naqraw, “Qeghedlu ragel hazin fuqu; u halli lil Satana joqghod fuq leminu”. Il-pregudizzju tat-tradutturi malajr tidher fil-miftuh billi Satana ngabet bhala nom proprju bl-ittra S kbira. Imma jekk naqraw is-Salm kollu nsibu li l-istess kelma fl-original inqalbet bil-kelmiet “ghedewwa” jew “avversarji” (versi 4, 20, 29). F’xi traduzzjonijiet tal-Bibbja bil-Malti ta’ dan is-Salm m’hemm l-ebda referenza ghal Satana jew “ix-xitan”, imma minflok intuzat il-kelma konnessa ma’ bniedem li jixli jew jaghti xhieda hazina fuq haddiehor. Din, mela, hija t-tifsira korretta tal-kelma “satana” fl-original.
L-uzu tal-kelma “xitan” fil-Bibbja juri li din il-kelma tista’ taghti l-idea ta’ avversarji li huma tajbin jew hziena. Imma dawk li ttraducew il-Bibbja dejjem zammew l-uzu ta’ dil-kelma ghal avversarji jew ghedewwa hziena biss.
Per ezempju, dil-kelma fl-original “satan” tidher fil-Ktieb tan-Numri 22:22, 32 b’referenza ghall-anglu li ntbaghat biex icanfar lill-profeta Balgham. Hawnhekk l-original inqaleb bil-kelma “avversarju” kif inhu xieraq u kif ghandu jkun. L-istess gara fil-Ktieb 1 Samwel 29:4 u fil-Ktieb 2 Samwel 19:22 fejn il-kelma originali “satan” inqalbet bil-kelmiet “ghadu” u “ghedewwa” rispettivament.
Il-punt importanti huwa dan: il-kelma originali bil-Lhudi ghandha dejjem tinqaleb u taghti l-idea ta’ “ghadu / ghedewwa”, u “avversarju / avversarji”, tidher fejn tidher. Fl-ebda cirkostanza ma ghandha tintuza biex taghti l-idea ta’ xi anglu li dineb.

META ALLA NNIFSU KIEN IMSEJJAH JEW MAGHDUD BHALA “XITAN”
Fit-Testment il-Qadim insibu msemmi avveniment fejn Alla nnifsu jidher fil-parti ta’ xitan jew avversarju fis-sens kif tkellimna fuqu aktar ’il quddiem. L-istess okkazjoni tissemma darbtejn: 2 Samwel 24:1 u 1 Kronaki 21:1.
L-ewwel kwotazzjoni tghid hekk:
“U ghadab il-Mulej raga’ xeghel ghal Izrael, u qajjem lil David ghalihom, u qal: Mur, ghodd lil Izrael u lil Guda” (2 Samwel 24:1).
Madankollu, l-istess grajja nsibuha bi kliem differenti:
“U Satana [jew ix-xitan] qam ghal Izrael, u ghewa lil David biex jghodd lil Izrael” (1 Kronaki 21:1).
Kif qed naraw, l-ewwel kwotazzjoni turi li din l-azzjoni kienet gejja min Alla; fit-tieni kwotazzjoni kien ix-xitan li gieghel lil David biex jghodd lin-nies li kellu taht idejh.
Liema hi l-interpretazzjoni tajba? Dawk li jemmnu illi l-kelma “xitan” jew “satana” tirreferi ghal xi anglu li tkecca mis-smewwiet u issa qieghed jittanta lill-bniedem ghad-dnub ghandhom problema biex ifissru din il-kontradizzjoni, jonkella jkollhom jemmnu illi Alla ghamel dak li ghamel bis-sahha u l-permezz tax-xitan, l-akbar ghadu tieghu.
L-ebda spjegazzjoni minn dawn ma hija tajba jew sodisfacenti. Hemm bzonn nifhmu, kif ghedna qabel, li l-kelma “satana’ jew “xitan” tfisser “avversarju” jew “ghadu”, u hemm bzonn naccettaw ukoll il-fatt illi Alla f’din l-okkazjoni hadha kontra Izrael, u b’hekk kien maghdud bhala l-avversarju taghhom. Jekk inharsu lejn dawn iz-zewg kwotazzjonijiet b’dan it-taghrif quddiemna ma jkollna l-ebda diffikultà fl-interpretazzjoni korretta.
Bhala “avversarju” kontra Izrael, il-Mulej Alla, billi kellu kontroll ta’ kulma kien qed jigri, halla li jigru l-affarijiet b’tali mod li gieghel lil David li jibda jibza’ u jithasseb mhux ftit dwar l-ghedewwa li kellu tar-renju tieghu. David spicca biex beda jghodd kemm kellu nies taht idejh li setghu jiggieldu biex jiddefendu s-saltna tieghu, u b’hekk David wera li aktar kien qed jafda fihom milli f’Alla. Alla ma riedx dan u ghalhekk hadha kontra David u b’hekk Alla nnifsu safa l-avversarju jew “ix-xitan” ta’ David. David waqa’ fid-dnub.
Kif turi din il-grajja, il-kelma “satana” jew “xitan” tfisser “avversarju” jew “ghadu”, u ghalhekk kull referenza fejn tidher din il-kelma tiddeciedi jekk l-avversarju jkunx wiehed tajjeb jew hazin, u jekk dan l-avversarju hux xi bniedem, xi qawwa jew forza, xi gvern jew saltna, xi gibdiet hziena tal-gisem, jew xi esperjenza avversarja. Dawn il-hwejjeg kollha huma rapprezentati fil-Bibbja bhala “satana” jew “ix-xitan”, u fl-ebda parti tal-Iskrittura ma nsibu dan it-terminu jalludi ghax-xitan kif jemmnu hafna knejjes, jigifieri ghal xi angli ribelluzi li tkeccew mill-genna.
Fi ftit kliem id-differenza bejn il-kelmiet “demonju” u “satana” narawha meta nirrejalizzaw illi “demonju” hija uzata dejjem f’sens ta’ avversarju hazin, waqt li “satana” tfisser semplicement avversarju, tajjeb jew hazin, skont il-kuntest fejn jidhru fl-Iskrittura.

IL-MANIFESTAZZJONIJIET TAD-DEMONJU U TAX-XITAN
Ghalkemm il-kelma “demonju” jew “xitan” hija bazikament marbuta u ghandha x’taqsam man-natura umana, jew mal-gibdiet u x-xewqat hziena tal-gisem, madankollu tidher b’forom differenti u varji. Per ezempju, meta xi gvern ihalli jsiru affarijiet kontra l-ligi t’Alla u b’hekk jinghad li huwa ghadu t’Alla, dan il-gvern isir manifestazzjoni politika tal-gisem midneb. Fuq dan is-suggett Pietru kiteb hekk:
“Kunu meqjusin; ishru; ghax il-ghadu taghkom, ix-xitan, bhal-ljun jghajjat, idur, ifittex lil min jibla” (1 Pietru 5:8).
F’dan il-vers il-kelma bil-Malti “xitan” hija “diabolos” bil-Grieg, u tfisser “wiehed li jaghti xi malafama, jixli jew jixhed hazin”. Il-kelma bil-Malti li nqalbet u saret “ghadu” gejja mill-Grieg “antidikos” u tfisser proprjament “ghadu fil-ligi”. L-avversarju, l-ghadu jew ix-xitan li dwaru Pietru kien qed iwissi lill-Insara kienu l-awtoritajiet civili ta’ dik il-habta li kienu digà bdew jippersegwitaw lis-segwaci ta’ Gesù. Pietru ma kienx qed jirreferi ghax-xitan kif jifhmu bih il-knejjes. Dawk l-awtoritajiet, il-persekuturi tal-knisja, kienu qishom iljuni feroci minhabba l-krudiltà u l-imgiba hazina taghhom kontra l-Insara ta’ dak iz-zmien. Pawlu wkoll kellu l-ghedewwa tieghu u ghall-istess raguni jhallilna miktub: “Madankollu l-Mulej waqaf mieghi, u tani l-qawwa biex ix-xandir ikun maghruf bija kollu kemm hu, u jisimghu l-Gentili kollha; u kont mehlus minn halq l-iljun” (2 Timotju 4:17). Fi kliem iehor, Pawlu kien mhedded mill-awtoritajiet, l-iljuni feroci, li jaqbduh u jixhtuh il-habs jekk jibqa’ jipprietka, imma Alla ma ppermettiex li jsir dan.
Kristu wkoll rrefera ghall-awtoritajiet civili bhala “xitan”. Lis-segwaci tieghu qallhom: “La tibza’ xejn minn dawk il-hwejjeg li ghandek tbati; ara, ix-xitan sa jitfa’ x’uhud minnkom il-habs, biex tkunu mgarrbin...kun fidil sal-mewt, u naghtik il-kuruna tal-hajja” (Rivelazzjoni 2:10).
Certament illi dan id-demonju jew ix-xitan kienu l-awtoritajiet civili li opponew u ppruvaw kemm setghu biex ma jhallux jixxandar u jinxtered it-taghlim ta’ Kristu u tal-Appostli.
Dwar l-istess avversarji u ghedewwa ta’ Kristu, Pawlu kiteb hekk:
“Ghax ahna ma niggildux kontra l-laham u d-demm, imma kontra l-principati, kontra s-setghat, kontra l-hakkiema tad-dlam u tad-dinja, kontra l-ispirti hziena, li huma fi mkejjen fil-gholi”
(Efesin 6:12).
Dan il-vers sikwit jikkwotawh dawk li jemmnu li x-xitan kien darba anglu, izda bi ftit hsieb u attenzjoni wiehed ghandu jinduna illi l-ehrex ghedewwa jew avversarji li kellhom l-Insara f’dawk iz-zminijiet kienu l-awtoritajiet Lhudija u pagani. Dawn kienu jippersegwitaw bl-akbar qilla u hruxija lill-Insara, tant li Pawlu wissa lil hbiebu l-Insara: “biex tkunu tifilhu zzommu kontra t-tnassis tax-xitan” (Esesin 6:11). Meta kiteb dan, Pawlu kellu f’mohhu safejn jaslu u x’passi jiehdu xi nies bla skrupli fl-awtoritajiet biex jixlu lill-Insara, jigdbu fuqhom u sahansitra jakkuzawhom b’affarijiet li qatt ma kienu hatjin taghhom: “Ghax ghandu mnejn Satana jinqeda bina; ahna nafu l-hsibijiet tieghu” (2 Korintin 2:11). Pawlu stess kien darba midhla ta’ dawn il-hwejjeg, qabel il-konverzjoni tieghu, ghax kien f’posizzjoni gholja u kien akkuza lill-Insara u ghalhekk kellu mitt ragun li jikteb fuq dawn l-affarijiet: “Imma Sawl kien iharbat il-knisja, billi kien jidhol f’kull dar, u jkarkar irgiel u nisa, u jitfaghhom fil-habs” (Atti 8:3). Dak kien zmien iehor. Bil-konverzjoni tieghu ghal Kristu tbiddel kollox.
Id-dinja pagana ta’ dak iz-zmien sikwit kienet takkuza, tixli u twahhal fis-segwaci ta’ Kristu, u ghal din ir-raguni hija maghduda fl-Iskrittura bhala x-xitan jew l-ghadu taghhom. L-oppozizzjoni harxa u bla bazi ta’ xejn li s-segwaci ta’ Kristu sofrew mill-awtoritajiet pagani, setghet gaghlithom iqumu kontra l-awtoritajiet, imma kieku ghamlu dan kien ikun ta’ dizunur ghall-isem ta’ Kristu l-Mexxej u l-Imghallem taghhom. L-Appostli gharfu din il-problema li l-Insara kienu qeghdin ihabbtu wicchom maghha, u ghalhekk ghallmuhom u wissewhom biex ma jaghmlu xejn minn dan allavolja l-ambjent li kienu qeghdin jghixu fih kien totalment kontra taghhom. Tawhom inkoraggiment biex jghixu sewwa u bil-ghaqal ma’ dawk li kienu ghedewwa taghhom, u joqoghdu attenti lil min jaghzlu biex imexxu l-attivitajiet tal-knisja taghhom. Gibdu l-attenzjoni lejn il-periklu li jista’ jinqala’ meta jaghzlu xi mexxejja tal-knejjes taghhom li jkunu ghadhom zghar, bla maturità u novizzi fix-xoghol ekklesjastiku taghhom: “M’ghandux ikun imghammed gdid li ma jintefahx bil-kburija, u jaqa’ fil-kundanna tax-xitan. Barra minn hekk jehtieg ukoll li jkollu xhieda tajba minghand dawk ta’ barra; li ma jaqghux fil-ghajb u fix-xibka tax-xitan” (1 Timotju 3:6-7).
F’dan il-kaz, skont ix-xitan tat-teologija, kif jista’ x-xitan jikkundanna jew jinkorla ma’ dak li jkun kburi? Ix-xitan, bhala simbolu tal-hzunija, hekk suppost ikun irid. Jekk ix-xitan tat-teologija jpinguh bhala mostru tal-hazen u tad-dnub, dak li jkun irid, jigifieri li jara n-nies hziena jissoktaw fil-hazen taghhom u jehzienu aktar, u mhux, skont dawn iz-zewg versi ta’ fuq, li jikkundannahom u jsib xi difetti fihom. In-nies li ma kinux Insara kienu jippruvaw isibu xi jqasqsu fuq l-Insara u l-mexxejja taghhom. Dawk ta’ barra l-knisja kienu, mela, ix-xitan jew l-ghedewwa tal-Insara. Ghalhekk Pawlu kien dejjem iwissi lill-Insara biex jimxu bil-ghaqal ma’ kulhadd.
Ix-xitan li dwaru l-Apppostli wissew lill-Insara kienet is-sistema pagana, socjali u politika, li kollha kemm hi kienet mibnija fuq il-qawwiet u l-gibdiet hziena tal-gisem.
It-terminu “xitan” gie applikat ukoll ghal xi individwi. Kristu sejjah lil Guda Iskarjota xitan (Gwanni 6:70), u lil Pietru ddeskrivieh bhala “xitan” meta qallu, “Lura minni, Satana: Int tfixkil ghalija; ghax ma tahsibx il-hwejjeg t’Alla, izda l-hwejjeg tal-bniedem” (Mattew 16:23; Mark 8:33). Dikjarazzjoni bhal din, jigifieri li joghgbuk aktar il-hwejjeg tal-bniedem ( ix-xewqat hziena tal-gisem), hu l-istess bhal meta tinghad li inti “xitan”.
Meta l-gibdiet hziena tal-gisem jiddominaw fuq xi hadd u dik il-persuna twarrab mal-genb il-hwejjeg li ghandhom x’jaqsmu ma’ Alla, tkun qieghda tmur kontra dak kollu li jirrapprezenta lil Kristu u t-taghlim tieghu. Dak il-bniedem li jaghmel hekk ikun bhal Guda: jigifieri “xitan”, avversarju jew ghadu tat-toroq tal-haqq u l-verità. Bir-ragun kollu, mela, jista’ jissejjah “bin ix-xitan” (Atti 13:10) jew prodott tal-gisem midneb. Il-mexxejja Lhud fi zmien Kristu kienu tabilhaqq ezempju ta’ dan. Huma kienu jsostnu u jemmnu bis-shih li kienu tassew ulied Abraham u li kienu veru jaghtu gieh lil Alla u jqimuh, izda Kristu ddikjara: “Intom ulied missierkom ix-xitan, u x-xewqat ta’ missierkom tridu taghmlu” (Gwanni 8:44). Kienu bnedmin moghtija ghall-gibdiet tal-gisem u billi kienu iddominati mill-pjaciri tad-dinja, setghu jissejhu ulied ix-xitan.
Meta Gwanni kiteb li, “Min jaghmel id-dnub gej mix-xitan; ghax ix-xitan dineb sa mill-bidu. Ghal din ir-raguni deher Bin Alla, biex jeqred l-opri tax-xitan” (1 Gwanni 3:8), kien qed jghallem l-istess verità. Kienu l-gibdiet hziena tal-gisem li waqqghu lill-bniedem fid-dnub mill-bidu. Kristu gie biex “jeqred l-opri tax-xitan”. Jigifieri Kristu deher biex jeqred id-dnub; u dan ghamlu billi fetah it-triq li twassal ghall-mahfra u ghas-salvazzjoni taghna. Il-kummenti tal-kittieb Gwanni ghandhom jitqieghdu hdejn dawk ta’ Sidna Gesù li qal, “minn gewwa, mill-qalb tal-bniedem johorgu l-hsibijiet hziena” (Mark 7:21). Is-sagrificcju ta’ Kristu ghandu l-iskop biex juri car illi l-gisem bil-gibdiet hziena tieghu jehtieg ikun simbolikament imsallab biex il-bniedem iservi lil Alla u Alla jaccettah. Ghalhekk Pawlu kiteb hekk:
“Dawk li huma ta’ Kristu sallbu ’l gisem bil-gibdiet u x-xewqat hziena tieghu” (Galatin 5:24).
Xi whud jippruvaw ma’ jservux il-gibdiet hziena sabiex b’hekk jobdu lil Kristu. Meta jaghmlu hekk, ix-xitan jintrebah, ghaliex ix-xitan huma dawk ix-xewqat hziena tal-gisem li jissieltu kontra dawk l-affarijiet li jixtieq Alla (Rumani 8:7-8; 1 Gwanni 2:15-16).
Id-dinja ta’ barra hija identifikata bhala “satana’. Fl-1Timotju 1:20, Pawlu kiteb dwar zewg eretici ta’ zmienu: “Fosthom hemm Himenes Alessandru, li jien irhejthom f’idejn Satana, biex jitghallmu ma jidghux”. Kif jista’ jkun li x-xitan, kif jifhmu li hu hafna knejjes, joqghod jghallem lin-nies biex ma jidghux? Kif jista’ Pawlu jerhi lil nies bhal dawn f’idejn Satana? Ma jistax ikun; anzi ghall-kuntrarju. F’dan il-kaz Pawlu kien qieghed jirreferi ghall-bzonn li jkun hemm id-dixxiplina ghax inkella wiehed jista’ jkun imkecci mill-knisja. Pawlu ried jaghtihom taghlima bhala twissija li m’ghandhomx jidghu. Iz-zewg eretici li semma Pawlu kienu jitqiesu bhala xjaten fis-sens li kienu qed jaghmlu hwejjeg kontra l-ispirtu ta’ Kristu.
L-ghanijiet li Pawlu kellu f’mohhu meta wissiehom bl-iskomunika kienu sabiex jikkoregi lil xi membri tal-komunità Nisranija u ma jhallihomx jitbieghdu mill-verità, u sabiex ihares lill-ohrajn mit-taghlim falz li l-eretici bdew jghallmu. B’hekk Pawlu kellu t-tama li jgaghalhom jezaminaw l-ideat hziena taghhom u b’hekk jergghu jhaddnu l-verità kollha u jergghu jinghaqdu mal-membri l-ohra tal-knisja (1 Korintin 5::1-5, 13; 2 Korintin 5:5-7; 2 Korintin 7:8-12).
Kristu ddikjara wkoll lil dawk li emmnu gewwa Pergamos:
“Jien naf l-ghemil tieghek, u fejn tghammar int hemm it-tron ta’ Satana...Antipas kien il-martri fidil tieghi, li kien maqtul fostkom, fejn jghammar Satana” (Rivelazzjoni 2:13).
It-tron ta’ Satana! Fejn jghammar Satana! Gewwa l-belt ta’ Pergamos! Hekk ghallem u qal Kristu! Dak kif kien possibli? Ezamina l-kuntest. Innota kemm kienu qawwija l-forzi tal-hazen f’dik il-belt (Rivelazzjoni 2:14-16). Kien hemm f’dik il-belt il-kwartier generali ta’ dawk li bl-ideat foloz taghhom kienu l-avversarji jew l-ghedewwa tal-verità. Belt ohra, Smirna, kienet maghrufa bhala “is-sinagoga ta’ Satana” (Rivelazzjoni 2:9). Din l-espressjoni taghti stampa ta’ grupp ta’ nies li kienu ghedewwa tal-verità; izda jekk huwa mifhum li Satana huwa xi mostru terribli u sopranaturali, b’dawn it-termini li jalludu ghal Satana jkollna nammettu illi Satana kien joqghod go Pergamos (Rivelazzjoni 2:13), li kien imexxi laqghat religjuzi go Smirna, u li kellu taht idejh il-habs ta’ dak il-post (Rivelazzjoni 2:8-13). Ideat foloz li ma jaghmlu l-ebda sens! Il-punt l-aktar importanti ta’ dan kollu hu li fejn jissemma Satana jew ix-xitan ghandna nifhmu li r-referenzi kollha jalludu ghall-ghedewwa personali, ekklesjastici u civili li l-Insara kellhom ihabbtu wicchom maghhom f’dawk iz-zminijiet ta’ persekuzzjoni.

SATANA FIL-KTIEB TA’ GOB
Sikwit nisimghu lil min jghid illi Satana fil-Ktieb ta’ Gob jidher bic-car li kien tassew xi hlejqa sopranaturali. Insibuh li kien gej minn dawra mad-dinja u mixja ’l hawn u ’l hemm (Gob 2:7), u li gie jipprezenta ruhu ma’ wlied Alla quddiem Alla (Gob 2:6).
Kultant wiehed jistaqsi: “Kif jista’ jkun li Satana pprezenta ruhu quddiem Alla jekk ma kienx jinsab fil-genna fejn jghammar Alla?” Jonkella hemm min jistaqsi: “ Ulied Alla m’humiex l-angli?”
Inwiegbu billi nenfasizzaw illi l-Ktieb ta’ Gob juri bic-car li Satana, kien min kien, ma kellu l-ebda setgha li jgib xi deni fuq Gob; it-tbatijiet li gew fuq Gob kienu mibghutin minn Alla. Alla ddikjara u qal lil Satana: “Inti xewwixtni ghalih biex neqerdu ghal xejn” (Gob 2:3). Gob innifsu rrejalizza: “Id il-Mulej habtitni” (Gob 19:21). L-istorja tghid bic-car illi “Imbaghad thassruh u farrguh ghall-hsara kollha li gieb fuqu l-Mulej” (Gob 42:11).
Infatti, m’hemm xejn sopruman dwar Satana kif jidher fil-Ktieb ta’ Gob.
Din il-konkluzjoni tissahhah meta nsibu illi l-espressjoni “ulied Alla” m’ghandhiex x’taqsam mal-angli immortali t’Alla, izda hi uzata sikwit biex tirreferi ghal nies mortali li jemmnu:
“Izda lil dawk kollha li laqghuh, tahom is-setgha li jsiru wlied Alla; lil dawk li jemmnu f’ismu” (Gwanni 1:12).
“Mahbubin, issa ahna wlied Alla, u ghadu ma deherx x’sa nkunu; imma nafu li meta jidher, ahna nkunu bhalu; ghax narawh kif inhu” (1 Gwanni 3:2).
Dawn ir-referenzi (u nistghu nsemmu ohrajn) juru car illi t-terminu “ulied Alla” jintuza ghal nies umana li jemmnu.
Ma’ dan inzidu l-fatt li meta bniedem jipprezenta ruhu quddiem Alla jfisser li qed iqim jew jadura lill-Mulej. Ghandna ezempju ta’ dan fil-Ktieb ta’ Dewteronomju 19:17 fejn dawk li jaghmlu hekk u “joqoghdu quddiem il-Mulej”, ikunu qed jipprezentaw ruhhom quddiem l-imhallfin u l-qassisin ta’ Izrael li jkunu qeghdin hemm f’isem il-Mulej.
Issa, meta dawn il-fatti jingabru flimkien u jkunu kkonsidrati fid-dawl illi t-terminu “Satana” jfisser “avversarju” kif rajna qabel, l-ewwel kapitlu tal-Ktieb ta’ Gob jaghtina stampa ta’ avversarju mhux maghruf li jinghaqad ma’ ohrajn li kienu gew biex jaghtu qima lill-Mulej, u li dan l-avversarju jakkuza lil Gob ghall-ipokresija. Dan is-Satana jew avversarju ta’ Gob jidher li kien bniedem li kien jivvjagga hafna (Gob 1:7) u kellu personalità inferjuri. Kien bniedem egoista, bniedem ghajjur li kien jaf sewwa lit-twajjeb Gob, u li kien dejjem lest biex jaghti l-malafama lill-isem ta’ Gob.
Il-dramm tal-hajja ta’ Gob ta’ sikwit irrepeta ruhu minn dak iz-zmien lil hawn. Anki fost il-hbieb Appostli ta’ Sidna Gesù, li kienu msejha “ulied Alla” (1 Gwanni 3:2), kien hemm ukoll xi hadd li kien Satana, xitan jew avversarju, jigifieri Guda Iskarjota. L-Imghallem sejjahlu l-avversarju tieghu ghax kien sejjer jittradih, “Mhux jien ghaziltkom it-tnax, u wiehed minnkom hu xitan. Kien qieghed jghid ghal Guda Iskarjota, bin Xmun; ghax hu kien li sa jittradih, billi kien wiehed mit-tnax” (Gwanni 6:70-71).
Ezaminajna tajjeb kull argument li suppost jaghti prova li jezisti x-xitan bil-qawwiet sopranaturali kollha tieghu, u ma sibna l-ebda bazi ghal dan it-twemmin falz. Passaggi mill-Bibbja bhal Ezekjel 28:13-15, Isaija 14:12-15, u Rivelazzjoni 12:7-9, huma ta’ sikwit ikkwotati biex juru li hemm dan l-ispeci ta’ spirtu hazin imsejjah xitan, imma meta l-fatti jigu studjati sewwa, din it-teorija tinstab li hi bla sens, vojta u falza. Kif naraw, mela, fil-profezija tieghu Ezekjel qed jitkellem, mhux fuq xi xitan imma fuq bniedem li kien kburi u kellu jigi fix-xejn, “ghanja ta’ tinwih ghas-sultan ta’ Tir” (Ezekjel 28:12). Fil-profezija tieghu, Isaija, meta jsemmi lil Lucifru (vers 12) qed jitkellem, mhux fuq xi xitan, imma fuq sultan iehor, “ghanja fuq is-sultan ta’ Babel” (Isaija 14:4). F’Rivelazzjoni 12 jissemma wkoll ix-xitan u Satana u kif ser naraw din il-profezija hija wahda dwar Ruma.
Huwa veru li f’Rivelazzjoni 12 tissemma “gwerra fis-sema” (vers 7), imma l-istess kapitlu jsemmi it-twelid ta’ tarbija tifel “fis-sema” (versi 1-2), ghalhekk il-lingwagg hu ovvjament simboliku. Id-demonju jew Satana jiehu l-isem ta’ “dragun” (vers 9), “li kellu sebat irjus u ghaxar qrun” (vers 3), u li b’denbu gibed mieghu terz mill-kwiekeb tas-sema u tefaghhom fuq id-dinja (vers 4)!
Illi dan hu kliem simboliku ghall-ahhar dwar is-sistema politika ta’ Ruma jidher bla dubju ta’ xejn mill-ispjega li hemm f’Rivelazzjoni 17:7-10, fejn din is-sistema hija identifikata bhala “dik il-belt il-kbira li ssaltan fuq is-slaten tal-art” (Rivelazzjoni 17:18). Il-belt li kienet issaltan fuq id-dinja kollha ta’ dak iz-zmien meta nkiteb il-Ktieb tar-Rivelazzjoni kienet Ruma, il-belt ta’ “seba' muntanji” (Rivelazzjoni 17:9).
Ghalhekk, ix-xitan jew Satana li naqraw fuqu f’Rivelazzjoni 12 huwa identifikat mas-sistema politiko-religjuza ta’ Ruma.

U XI NSIBU FUQ “ID-DEMONJI”?
Aktar ’il quddiem urejna li hemm zewg kelmiet bil-Grieg li gew tradotti “devil” bl-Ingliz u “demonju” jew “xitan” bil-Malti. Dawn il-kelmiet fl-original huma DIABOLOS u DAIMONION. DAIMONION skont Parkhurst fil-Lessiku Grieg tieghu tfisser: “Forma ta’ alla ta’ livell baxx, l-ispirtu ta’ nies li mietu u li kellhom is-setgha li jidhlu go xi bniedem u jmarrduh.”
Din il-kelma bdiet tintuza bhala effett tas-superstizzjoni, tip ta’ superstizzjoni li ghadha f’xi mhuh injoranti tan-nies tal-lum. Xi nies li ghadhom lura ghadhom jemmnu illi xi mard tal-bniedem huwa rizultat tal-pussess malinn fuqhom ta’ dawn l-ispirti tan-nies li mietu qabel.
F’xi pajjizi tal-Lvant, xi nies ghadhom jemmnu b’din l-idea, u t-tobba meta jkunu jridu juzaw metodi godda tax-xjenza tal-medicina moderna, sikwit isibuha difficli biex jithallew juzawhom fuq il-pazjenti taghhom, ghax qabel ma t-tobba jithallew juzaw il-medicini taghhom, il-pazjenti jkunu jridu li x-xjaten jew l-ispirti hziena jitkeccew jew jinqerdu minn go fihom. Lanqas ma hi haga rari li t-tobba moderni stess f’dawn il-postijiet fil-Lvant jemmnu huma stess serjament li l-fejqan tal-pazjenti taghhom huwa tassew il-hrug tax-xitan minn dak li jkun marid. In-nies ta’ dawk l-imkejjen hekk biss jistghu jifmhu l-fejqan taghhom. Ezempju ta’ dan huma xi gruppi ta’ nies go Burma li ghadhom jemmnu b’dawn l-ispirti immaginarji li jidhlu go fihom u jaghtuhom xi marda jew xi deni fiziku jew mentali iehor.
Hippocrates tal-Grecja tal-qedem maghruf ghall-fizika kiteb sagg fuq l-epilepsija jew il-mard tal-qamar, il-marda li hu sejjah “il-marda sagra” ghaliex il-poplu kien jemmen lill-qassisin ta’ dak iz-zmien li dawk li kienu epileptici kienu possessati. B’hekk il-qassisin, is-shahar u l-imposturi kienu jaqilghu hafna flejjes waqt li kienu taparsi jippruvaw ifejqu dil-marda bis-sahha tas-sharijiet u t-talb. Hippocrates kiteb dan is-sagg sabiex jikxef il-hmerijiet u s-superstizzjonijiet ta’ dawn il-fehmiet u sabiex jipprova jurihom li din il-marda ma kinetx aktar jew anqas sagra minn mardiet ohrajn.
Il-Bibbja, ghalhekk, tuza din l-espressjoni “tkecci x-xjaten” ghaliex dik kienet fil-vernakular, jigifieri fuq fomm in-nies, l-idea tal-poplu kif wiehed sata’ jehles mill-mard. Li tkecci x-xjaten kienet tfisser li tfejjaq il-mard. Fuq din il-bazi hemm bzonn li nifhmu l-espressjoni: “U Gesù canfar lix-xitan; u dan hareg minnu” (Mattew 17:18).
Ir-referenza li xi persuna kellha x-xitan go fiha kwazi dejjem kellha x’taqsam mal-mard tal-mohh. Per ezempju, meta Gesù staqsa lill-Lhud ghaliex riedu jfittxu li joqtluh, huma wiegbu: “Int ghandek xitan [daimonion]; min qieghed ifittex li joqtlok?” (Gwanni 7:20-21). Bit-twegiba taghhom kienu qishom qed jghidulu, kif nghidu llum, li kien mignun biex jahseb hekk.
Ghalkemm id-dixxipli ta’ Gesù uzaw it-terminu “daimonion”, ma jfissirx li kienu jaccattaw u jemmnu bl-idea pagana, l-istess kif ahna daz-zmien, ghalkemm kultant nuzaw xi espressjonijiet strambi, ma jfissirx li nemmnu fl-original ta’ dawk l-ideat. Per ezempju, il-kelma “lunatiku” tfisser “affettwat mill-qamar” jew “ghandu xi seher li gej mill-qamar”, izda meta nuzaw dil-kelma ma jkollniex f’mohhna dik il-fehma. Meta jkun hemm hafna storbju jew dizordni ahna nghidu li hemm “pandemonju”, izda ma nemmnux bit-tifsira litterali tal-kelma illi fil-fatt tfisser li l-istorbju kien ikkagunat mill-influwenzi hziena ta’ xi “daimonion” jew demonju. Nghidu wkoll li xi hadd hu “imsahhar” bla ma nemmnu bis-shahar.
L-istess bl-uzu tal-kelma “daimonion”. Fil-fomm tal-poplu Lhudi meta xi hadd kellu x-xitan go fih kien ifisser li kien marid.
Kristu ghamel uzu tal-lingwagg fuq fomm il-poplu u tkellem kif kien jitkellem kulhadd, bla ma kien jaccetta l-ideat u s-superstizzjonijiet taghhom. Kristu ghamel referenza ghal Baghalzebub (Belzebub), li l-Filistej ta’ Ekron kienu jqimu bhala wiehed mill-allat taghhom, alla tad-dubbien, u tkellem fuqu bhallikieku kien tassew jezisti (Mattew 12:27). Kristu ha din l-okkazjoni mhux ghax kien jemmen b’dan l-alla falz, imma biex jattakka lill-Farizej u jaghtihom taghlima. Certament li Kristu ma approvax it-twemmin f’dan l-alla pagan.

KIF WIEHED JOHROG REBBIEH FUQ IX-XITAN
Matul dan l-istudju rajna illi x-xitan huwa assocjat mal-gibdiet u x-xewqat hziena tal-gisem. Dawn it-tendenzi jezistu go gisem haj, ghalhekk meta Kristu miet fuq is-salib, dawn mietu u spiccaw ukoll. Meta qam mill-imwiet ghall-hajja eterna, il-gibdiet tal-gisem ma setghu qatt ikunu parti min-natura immortali li nghatatlu (Rumani 6:4, 7; 1 Korintin 15:54).
Is-sagrificcju tieghu huwa xempju jew mudell ta’ kif ahna nistghu nohduha max-xitan, il-gisem midneb li ghandna, u nzommuh kontrollat. Ahna nidinbu u ghalhekk ghandna bzonn il-mahfra, u din naqilghuha permezz ta’ Gesù Kristu. Pietru, ghalhekk, waqt li xandar il-Vangelu, ghallem:
“Indmu, u kull wiehed minnkom jitghammed f’isem Gesù Kristu ghall-mahfra tad-dnubiet...” (Atti 2:38).
Meta ninghaqdu ma’ Sidna Gesù permezz tat-twemmin u tal-maghmudija, inkunu qed niehdu l-ewwel passi biex nirbhu kontra x-xitan; ghaliex fi Kristu biss nistghu naqilghu l-mahfra ta’ dnubietna. Gwanni kiteb hekk:
“Jekk nistqarru dnubietna, hu fidil u gust biex jahfrilna dnubietna, u jnaddafna minn kull hazen” (1 Gwanni 1:9).
Fuq il-mahfra ta’ dnubietna nibnu u nibdew hajja li l-mudell taghha huwa Sidna Gesù. Bis-sahha u l-ghajnuna li niehdu minn ghandu, nistghu, sakemm hu possibli, li nohorgu rebbieha fuq il-gisem. Pawlu ghallem:
“U li miet ghal kulhadd, biex dawk li jghixu ma jghixux aktar ghalihom infushom, imma ghal dak li miet ghalihom u raga’ qam” (2 Korintin 5:15).
Ukoll:
“Jien imsallab ma’ Kristu; madankollu jien nghix; imma mhux jien, imma Kristu jghix fija; u l-hajja li issa nghix fil-gisem nghixha bil-fidi tal-Iben t’Alla, li habbni, u ta lilu nnifsu ghalija”
(Galatin 2:20).
Jekk nimxu fuq l-ezempju li hallielna Kristu nkunu mmexxija biex nghixu hajja ahjar, hajja li fiha jiddominaw principji divini u mhux l-aspetti hziena tal-gibdiet tal-gisem. B’hekk nibnu f’hajjitna karatteristici divini bhal dawk li wera Sidna Gesù, u nkunu nistghu nghixu bit-tama li meta jerga’ jigi lura, ninghataw natura divina li ghandu issa hu ma’ Missieru fis-smewwiet (2 Pietru 1:4).
Pawlu kiteb:
“Minn hemm ukoll ahna nistennew is-Salvatur, lil Sidna Gesù Kristu; li jbiddel il-gisem tal-umiljazzjoni taghna, biex ikun jixbah il-gisem tal-glorja tieghu” (Filippin 3:20).
Il-hajja immortali fis-saltna t’Alla fuq din l-art (Danjel 2:44) hija t-tama taghna. Biex ingawduha ghandna bzonn nohorgu rebbieha kontra l-ghadu taghna x-xitan, jew il-gibdiet hziena tal-gisem. L-ewwel haga li nehtiegu naghmlu biex naslu fejn nixtiequ hija li nifhmu sewwa l-pjan ta’ Alla fi Kristu, u dan jinkludi r-rebha li rebah Kristu fuq ix-xitan. Ghalhekk ejjew nifhmu sewwa xi jfisser ix-xitan, u b’hekk inkunu nistghu nidhlu ghall-battalja kontra d-dnub li huwa dejjem maghna. Nirrejalizzaw in-nuqqasijiet kollha taghna, u naghmlu minn kollox biex nohorgu rebbieha fuq ix-xewqat hziena tal-gisem ghall-glorja t’Alla; u b’hekk inkunu qeghdin nibnu l-pedament ghall-hajja eterna meta jigi lura Sidna Gesù Kristu.